Expand links In this section

About my region – Richmond-Tweed New South Wales

​​​​​​​​​About my region is a series of individual profiles of the agricultural, forestry and fisheries industries in your region. This regional profile presents an overview of the agriculture, fisheries and forestry sectors in the Richmond-Tweed region and the recent New South Wales financial performance of the broadacre, dairy and vegetable industries.​

[expand all]

Regional overview

The Richmond-Tweed region of New South Wales is located in the far north east corner of the state, including the coastal and ranges areas. The region includes the major regional towns of Lismore, Casino, Ballina, and Murwillumbah and comprises the six local government areas of Ballina, Byron, Kyogle, Lismore, Richmond Valley, and Tweed. The region covers a total area of around 10,271 square kilometres or 1.3 per cent of New South Wales and is home to approximately 248,500 people (ABS 2018).

Agricultural land in the Richmond-Tweed region occupies 6,071 square kilometres, or 59 per cent of the region. Areas classified as conservation and natural environments (nature conservation, protected areas and minimal use) occupy 2,275 square kilometres, or 22 per cent of the region. The most common land use by area is grazing modified pastures, which occupies 3,743 square kilometres or 37 per cent of the Richmond-Tweed region.

Broad land use in the Richmond-Tweed region
Shows a map of broad land use in the Richmond-Tweed region. It includes a legend which shows the broad land use categories— nature conservation, protected areas and minimal use; grazing native vegetation; production forestry; grazing modified pastures; plantation forestry; cropping; horticulture; intensive uses and water. This map is discussed in the above paragraph.
Source: Catchment scale land use of Australia ABARES 2017


Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) data from the November 2018 Labour Force Survey indicate that around 114,700 people were employed in the Richmond-Tweed region. The region accounts for 3 per cent of total employment in New South Wales and 5 per cent of all people employed in the New South Wales agriculture, forestry and fishing sector.

Health care and social assistance was the largest employment sector with 17,700 people, followed by retail trade with 13,400 people, and construction with 11,900 people. Other important employment sectors in the region were education and training; accommodation and food services; and professional, scientific and technical services. The agriculture, forestry and fishing sector employed 3,700 people, representing 3 per cent of the region's workforce.

Employment profile, Richmond-Tweed region, November 2018
Shows the number of people employed in the Richmond-Tweed region by industry in thousands. The figure is discussed in the previous two paragraphs.
Note: Annual average of the preceding 4 quarters
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, cat. no. 6291.0, Labour Force, Australia 2018

Agricultural sector

Value of agricultural production

In 2016–17, the gross value of agricultural production in the Richmond-Tweed region was $499 million, which was 3 per cent of the total gross value of agricultural production in New South Wales ($14.5 billion).

The Richmond-Tweed region has a diverse agricultural sector. The most important commodities in the region based on the gross value of agricultural production were macadamias ($98 million), followed by cattle and calves ($78 million) and milk ($67 million). These commodities together contributed 49 per cent of the total value of agricultural production in the region. In 2016–17 the Richmond-Tweed region accounted for 93 per cent of the total value of the state's macadamia production.

Value of agricultural production, Richmond-Tweed region, New South Wales 2016–17
Shows the gross value of agricultural production in the Richmond-Tweed region in millions of dollars. The figure is discussed in the previous two paragraphs.
Note: The graph shows only data published by the ABS. Some values were not published by the ABS to ensure confidentiality. The "Other commodities" category includes the total value of commodities not published as well as those with small values.
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, cat. no. 7503.0, Value of agricultural commodities produced, Australia 2018

Number and type of farms

ABS data indicate that in 2016–17 there were 1,485 farms in the Richmond-Tweed region with an estimated value of agricultural operations of $40,000 or more. The region contains 6 per cent of all farm businesses in New South Wales.

Number of farms, by industry classification, Richmond-Tweed region, 2016–17

Industry classification

Richmond-Tweed region

New South Wales

Number of farms

% of Region

Number of farms

Contribution of region to state total %

Beef Cattle Farming (Specialised)        456 30.7      6,968 6.5
Other Fruit and Tree Nut Growing        417 28.1          616 67.8
Sugar Cane Growing        234 15.8          357 65.7
Dairy Cattle Farming        118 8.0          902 13.1
Vegetable Growing (Outdoors)           54 3.6          636 8.4
Grain-Sheep or Grain-Beef Cattle Farming           33 2.2      3,579 0.9
Nursery Production (Under Cover)           31 2.1          141 22.3
Nursery Production (Outdoors)           27 1.8          191 14.0
Poultry Farming (Meat)           23 1.5          307 7.4
Other Grain Growing           16 1.1      3,192 0.5
Other           76 5.1      9,134 0.8
Total agriculture    1,485 100   26,024 5.7

Note: Estimated value of agricultural operations $40,000 or more. Industries that constitute less than 1 per cent of the region's industry are not shown.
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics

Farms in the table above are classified according to the activities that generate most of their value of production. Beef cattle farms (456 farms) were the most common, accounting for 31 per cent of all farms in the Richmond-Tweed region, and 7 per cent of all beef cattle farms in New South Wales.

Estimated value of agricultural operations (EVAO) is a measure of the value of production from farms and a measure of their business size. Around 54 per cent of farms in the Richmond-Tweed region had an EVAO between $50,000 and $150,000. These farms accounted for only 16 per cent of the total value of agricultural operations in 2016–17. In comparison, 12 per cent of farms in the region had an EVAO of more than $500,000 and accounted for an estimated 54 per cent of the total value of agricultural operations in the Richmond – Tweed region in 2016–17.

Distribution of farms by estimated value of agricultural operations, Richmond-Tweed region, 2016–17
Shows share of farms and share of value of agricultural operations in the Richmond-Tweed region. The figure is discussed in the previous paragraph.
Note: Only farms with an EVAO of $50,000 or more in 2016–17 are included in these data. The scope of ABS Rural Environment and Agricultural Collections changed in 2015–16 to include only agricultural businesses with an EVAO of $40,000 or greater.
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics

Farm financial performance

Estimates of financial performance are available for all broadacre, beef, sheep, grains, dairy and vegetable farms in New South Wales.

Fisheries sector

The Richmond-Tweed region is a key area for commercial fishing in New South Wales. Fishers in the area target a range of prawn species, including king prawns, bugs and a range of finfish including snapper, bream, flathead, shark, emperor, tuna, salmon, and cod. The state fisheries operating in the region include the Ocean Prawn Trawl fishery and the Ocean Trap and Line Fishery. Tweed Head provides catches of king prawns and spanner crabs off the coast and mud crabs from the estuary. Ballina and Evans Head supply king prawns, snapper, mulloway, spanner crabs, and mud crabs. Larger pelagic species are also caught along the coastline of the region, including tuna, swordfish and striped marlin, within the Commonwealth Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery. The aquaculture production in the region includes oysters, prawns, red claw, silver perch, and trout. The region is also popular for recreational fishing for: bream, sand whiting, dusky flathead, luderick, tarwhine, and mud crabs. Gamefishing is also a popular recreational pursuit in the region, targeting larger pelagic species such as tuna, marlin, and billfish.

In 2015–16 the gross value of New South Wales fisheries production was estimated to be around $156 million, increasing by 4 per cent ($6 million) from 2014–15. New South Wales contributed 5 per cent of the total value of Australian fisheries production in 2015–16. In value terms, the wild-catch sector accounted for 58 per cent ($91 million) of the state's total production and the aquaculture sector accounted for the remaining 42 per cent ($65 million).

New South Wales wild-catch fisheries provide a range of fisheries products. In 2015–16, finfish species contributed 47 per cent of the wild-catch production, valued at $43 million. The main finfish species landed were sea mullet, with a gross value of production of $9.6 million, followed by black and yellowfin bream ($3.6 million), school whiting ($2.8 million), snapper ($2.0 million), and sand whiting ($1.5 million). Prawns contributed 19 per cent of the total value of wild-catch fisheries with a value of $17.3 million, with other important crustacean groups being eastern rock lobster (13 per cent; $11.8 million), and crabs (10 per cent; $9.5 million).

In 2015–16 the value of New South Wales aquaculture production is estimated to have increased by 7 per cent ($4.2 million) to $65 million. Oyster production makes the greatest contribution to New South Wales aquaculture production, accounting for 68 per cent of production by value, worth $44.3 million. Prawns ($6.0 million) and finfish aquaculture species, including silver perch ($3 million), trout ($2.3 million), and barramundi ($1.0 million) make up most of the remaining aquaculture production.

Commonwealth fisheries active in New South Wales include the Small Pelagic Fishery, the Eastern Tuna and Billfish fishery (mainly supplying export markets with tuna), and the Commonwealth trawl sector of the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark fishery.

In 2015–16, New South Wales fisheries product exports were valued at $23.3 million. The main export products include live and fresh, chilled or frozen fish, rock lobster, and abalone. Japan and Vietnam, are the major destinations for New South Wales fisheries exports, accounting for 45 per cent and 13 per cent of the total value of exports in 2015–16, respectively. Other major export destinations include New Zealand (9 per cent), Spain (5 per cent), and Taiwan (5 per cent).

The New South Wales coast line is an important recreational fishing area, with a multitude of inlets and estuaries from which to fish. Being a tourism precinct, the region offers a number of recreational fishing opportunities, with the value of this activity to the regional economy likely to be significant. There are also a range of game fishing tournaments throughout the year, including in the Bermagui and Port Stephens area, targeting tuna and marlin species. New South Wales also contains a number of recreational only fishing areas, especially in the far south coast of New South Wales, a popular destination for both marine and freshwater recreational fishers. A large number of recreational fishers also fish in the Greater Sydney area, stretching from Newcastle to the Illawarra area, and comprising the city areas of Newcastle, Sydney, and Wollongong. Species commonly targeted in the area include yellowfin bream, dusky flathead, yellowtail, blue swimmer crab, squid, and southern calamari (Steffe & Murphy 2011).

Forestry sector

In 2014–15, the most recent year for which regional data are available, the total plantation area in the Richmond-Tweed region was 36,300 hectares, comprised of 24,800 hectares of hardwood plantations and 11,500 hectares of softwood plantations. The main hardwood species planted are Dunn's white gum (Eucalyptus dunnii), flooded gum (Eucalyptus grandis), spotted gum (Corymbia variegata), and Sydney blue gum (Eucalyptus saligna). The main softwood species planted are slash pine (Pinus elliottii) and Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea).

In 2011, there were 546,900 hectares of native forests in the Richmond-Tweed region, comprised mainly of Eucalypt tall open (201,100 hectares), Eucalypt medium open (119,000 hectares) and Rainforest (92,800 hectares) forest types. There were 297,600 hectares of native forests privately owned, 142,200 hectares were in nature conservation reserves and 96,900 hectares were multiple-use public forest available for timber production. Major timber processing industries are located at Lismore, Kyogle and Wyan.

In 2015–16, the total plantation area in New South Wales was 394,400 hectares, comprised of 87,100 hectares of hardwood plantations, 307,100 hectares of softwood plantations and 100 hectares of other plantations.

In 2015–16, the volume of native hardwood logs harvested in New South Wales was 876,000 cubic metres valued at $110 million. The volume of plantation hardwood logs harvested was 63,000 cubic metres valued at $5 million. The volume of softwood harvested was 4.7 million cubic metres valued at $344 million. These values and volumes include New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory.

Total sales and service income in the New South Wales forest and wood product industry was estimated at $8.9 billion in 2015–16. The income generated from the sale of wood products was $4.6 billion, and the income generated from the sale of paper and paper products was $4.3 billion.

In 2016, the New South Wales forestry sector employed 17,571 workers (0.5 per cent of the total employed workforce in New South Wales) compared with 22,250 (0.7 per cent) in 2011. The number of people employed includes the following categories: forestry, logging, support services, timber wholesaling; and wood, pulp, paper and converted paper product manufacturing.

Area of native forest, by tenure, Richmond-Tweed region
Shows areas of native forest by tenure in the Richmond-Tweed region. The figure is discussed in the previous paragraphs.
Source: ABARES Australia's State of the Forests Report 2013


ABS 2018, Population by Age and Sex, Regions of Australia, 2017, cat. no. 3235.0 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, accessed 10 January 2019.

Steffe, AS & Murphy, JJ 2011, Recreational fishing surveys in the Greater Sydney Region. Fisheries final report series, no. 131, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Cronulla, New South Wales.​

Last reviewed:
22 Jan 2019