About my region is a series of individual profiles of the agricultural, forestry and fisheries industries in your region. This regional profile presents an overview of the agriculture, sheep and beef sectors in the Cairns region and the recent Queensland financial performance of the broadacre, dairy and vegetable industries.
The Cairns region is located in the north of Queensland and comprises the three local government areas of Cairns, Cassowary Coast and Yarrabah, part of the Tablelands local government area, and the regional centres of Cairns and Port Douglas. The region covers a total area of around 21,300 square kilometres or 1 per cent of Queensland's total area and is home to approximately 249,700 people (ABS 2018).
Agricultural land in the Cairns region occupies 10,000 square kilometres, or 47 per cent of the region. Areas classified as conservation and natural environments (nature conservation, protected areas and minimal use) occupy 10,100 square kilometres, or 47 per cent of the region. The most common land use by area is nature conservation, which occupies 8,800 square kilometres or 41 per cent of the Cairns region (ABARES 2016).
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) data from the February 2019 Labour Force Survey indicate that around 120,100 people were employed in the Cairns region. The region accounts for 5 per cent of total employment in Queensland and 8 per cent of all people employed in the Queensland agriculture, forestry and fishing sector.
Retail trade was the largest employment sector with 17,200 people, followed by health care and social assistance with 15,300 people, and accommodation and food services with 11,700 people. Other important employment sectors in the region were construction; education and training; and public administration and safety. The agriculture, forestry and fishing sector employed 5,000 people, representing 4 per cent of the region's workforce.
Value of agricultural production
In 2017–18, the gross value of agricultural production in the Cairns region was $999 million, which was 8 per cent of the total gross value of agricultural production in Queensland ($13 billion).
The Cairns region has a diverse agricultural sector. The most important commodities in the region based on the gross value of agricultural production were bananas ($463 million), followed by sugarcane ($273 million) and avocados ($79 million). These commodities together contributed 82 per cent of the total value of agricultural production in the region. In 2016–18 the Cairns region accounted for 98 per cent of the total value of Queensland's bananas production.
Number and type of farms
ABS data indicate that in 2016–17 there were 1,356 farms in the Cairns region with an estimated value of agricultural operations of $40,000 or more. The region contains 7 per cent of all farm businesses in Queensland.
Number of farms, by industry classification, Cairns region, 2016–17
|Industry classification||Cairns region||Queensland|
|Number of farms||% of Region||Number of farms||Contribution of region to state total %|
|Sugar Cane Growing||677||49.9||3,115||21.8|
|Beef Cattle Farming (Specialised)||258||19.0||8,528||3.0|
|Other Fruit and Tree Nut Growing||218||16.1||762||28.6|
|Dairy Cattle Farming||59||4.3||509||11.5|
|Vegetable Growing (Outdoors)||36||2.7||671||5.4|
|Citrus Fruit Growing||33||2.4||182||18.0|
|Other Crop Growing
Note: Estimated value of agricultural operations $40,000 or more. Industries that constitute less than 1 per cent of the region's industry are not shown.
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics
Farms in the table above are classified according to the activities that generate most of their value of production. Sugar cane farms (677 farms) were the most common, accounting for 50 per cent of all farms in the Cairns region, and 22 per cent of all sugar cane farms in Queensland.
Estimated value of agricultural operations (EVAO) is a measure of the value of production from farms and a measure of their business size. Around 27 per cent of farms in the Cairns region had an EVAO between $50,000 and $150,000. These farms accounted for only 4 per cent of the total value of agricultural operations in 2016–17. In comparison, 15 per cent of farms in the region had an EVAO of more than $1 million and accounted for an estimated 57 per cent of the total value of agricultural operations in the Cairns region in 2016–17.
Farm financial performance
Estimates of financial performance are available for all broadacre, diary and vegetable farms in
Cairns is a key commercial fishing port in Queensland. It is the fourth largest home port for the Commonwealth Eastern Tuna and Billfish Fishery and a home port for the Commonwealth Northern Prawn fishery. The diverse range of wild-caught species in this region include: prawns, barramundi, coral trout, Spanish mackerel, tuna and lobster. The East Coast Trawl Fishery is the largest of Queensland's commercial fisheries operating in the region targeting mostly prawns, but also harvests bugs, squid, and other species.
The Far North area produced 3,717 tonnes of aquaculture production in 2016–17 utilising 329 hectares of ponds. The aquaculture industry in the area employed approximately 177.4 persons in 2016–17 (Lobegeiger 2018). Aquaculture species produced in the Far North area include barramundi, jade perch, prawns and pearls.
Recreational fishing is a popular activity in far north Queensland. The proportion of residents in this area that fish at least once each year is 23 per cent, significantly higher than the Queensland average of 17 per cent (Taylor et al. 2012). Fishers from the Cairns region fish mostly in the local coastal waters and adjacent reefs within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park from boats, or in the central coast catchment to the south from the shore and from boats. Common species caught by fishers are coral trout, pikey bream, tropical snapper, barramundi, trumpeter whiting, mangrove jack, Spanish mackerel and mud crab. The number of barramundi caught by fishers in the far north is about twice that of any other fish species although it is not the most common fish harvested, due to the high proportion of released fish. This region is a popular destination for fishers travelling from other regions of Queensland, elsewhere in Australia and overseas.
In 2015–16 the total gross value of Queensland's fisheries production was $291.1 million, a decrease of 1 per cent ($2.1 million) from 2014–15. Queensland contributed 10 per cent of the total value of Australian fisheries production in 2015–16. In value terms, the wild-catch sector accounted for 60 per cent ($175.9 million) of the state's total production and the aquaculture sector accounted for the remaining 40 per cent ($118.3 million).
Queensland's wild-catch fisheries sector provides a range of fisheries products. The highest contribution being from prawns, which account for 36 per cent of the total value of wild-catch fisheries production with a value of $62.7 million, followed by coral trout (15 per cent; $26.8 million) and crabs (14 per cent; $24.2 million). Over the last decade the real value of Queensland's wild-caught fisheries products has reduced by 37 per cent. Prawns, snapper and shark, showed the largest decline in the value of production over the past decade, reducing by 35 per cent, 77 per cent and 66 per cent respectively. Competition from imported prawns in the domestic market has also placed significant downward pressure on prices in recent years.
The value of Queensland's aquaculture production has increased by 4 per cent in 2015–16 to $118.3 million. Prawn and barramundi farming account for the largest share of production by value, with prawns accounting for 68 per cent, and $80.5 million of production, followed by barramundi (25 per cent; $29.3 million).
Commonwealth fisheries active in the waters off the east coast of Queensland include the Commonwealth Eastern Tuna and Billfish fishery (mainly supplying export markets with tuna) and the Coral Sea Fishery.
In 2015–16, Queensland's fisheries product exports were valued at $199.6 million. The main export products include live and fresh, chilled or frozen fish, prawns and rock lobster. Hong Kong, Japan and the United States are the major destinations for Queensland fisheries exports, accounting for 42 per cent, 17 per cent and 14 per cent of the total value of exports in 2015–16, respectively. Other major export destinations include China (7 per cent) and Vietnam (4 per cent).
Recreational fishing is popular in Queensland. The results of the 2013–14 state wide and regional recreational fishing survey report that recreational fishing continues to be a popular activity; however the participation rate has dropped from 17 per cent in 2010 to 15 per cent in 2013. In the 12 months prior to November 2013 approximately 700,000 Queenslanders went recreational fishing (QDAF 2015). Total expenditure in the sector is estimated to be between $350 million and $420 million in 2008–09 (DEEDI 2009). The tropical waters of Queensland are also a key area for tourism, attracting anglers from around the world and Australia. Popular target species include crabs, prawns and a range of finfish species including cods and groupers, coral trout, redthroat emperor, rosy snapper, and mackerel. For freshwater activity some key species caught include barramundi, eels, silver perch, and yabby and blueclaw crayfish.
In 2014–15, the most recent year for which regional data are available, the total plantation area in the Cairns region was 10,000 hectares, comprised of 1,300 hectares of hardwood plantations and 8,700 hectares of softwood plantations. The main softwood species planted are Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea) and hoop pine (Araucaria cunninghamii).
In 2011, there were 1.7 million hectares of native forests in the Cairns region, mainly comprising Rainforest (599,700 hectares), Eucalypt medium woodland (463,600 hectares) and Eucalypt medium open (369,100 hectares) forest types. There were 686,100 hectares of native forests in nature conservation reserves, 585,000 hectares were in leased forests, 243,700 hectares were privately owned and 112,800 hectares were in multiple-use public forest available for timber production. Major timber processing industries are sawmills located at Ravenshoe and Mareeba.
In 2015–16, the total plantation area in Queensland was 230,400 hectares, comprised of 34,800 hectares of hardwood plantations, 195,500 hectares of softwood plantations and 100 hectares of other plantations.
In 2015–16, the volume of native hardwood logs harvested in Queensland was 285,000 cubic metres valued at $43 million. The volume of plantation hardwood logs harvested was 14,000 cubic metres valued at $1 million. The volume of softwood harvested, including native cypress pines, was 2.6 million cubic metres valued at $205 million.
The sales and service income generated from the sale of wood products in Queensland was estimated at $2.6 billion in 2015–16. Sales and service income for paper and paper products is not available for 2015−16.
In 2016, Queensland's forestry sector employed 9,518 workers (0.4 per cent of the total employed workforce) compared with 12,840 (0.6 per cent) in 2011. The number of people employed includes the following categories: forestry, logging, support services, timber wholesaling; and wood, pulp, paper and converted paper product manufacturing.
Areas of native forest, by tenure, Cairns region
ABARES Australia's State of the Forests Report 2013
ABARES 2016, Land Use of Australia 2010–11, ABARES, Canberra, May.
ABARES 2018, Catchment scale land use of Australia – December 2018, Canberra, December.
ABS 2018, Population by Age and Sex, Regions of Australia, 2017, cat. no. 3235.0 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, accessed 10 January 2019.
ABS 2019a Labour Force, Australia, Detailed, Quarterly, Feb 2019, cat. no. 6291.0 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, accessed 03 April 2019.
ABS 2019b Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia, 2017-18, cat. no. 7503.0 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, accessed 15 May 2019.
DEEDI 2009, Prospects for Queensland's primary industries 2009–10, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, Brisbane, Queensland.
Lobegeiger, R, 2018, Aquaculture production summary for Queensland 2016–17, Queensland Government.
QDAF 2015, Statewide recreational Fishing Surveys, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Brisbane, Queensland.
Taylor, S, Webley, J & McInnes, K 2012, 2010 Statewide Recreational Fishing Survey, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Brisbane, Queensland.