Chapter 2: Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Fishery
N Marton and D Mobsby.
TABLE 2.2 Main features and statistics for the BSCZSF
|Biological status||Fishing |
|Commercial scallop |
|Not subject to overfishing||Not overfished|
|Not subject to overfishing||Not overfished|
|Large, stable biomass identified in western Bass Strait. Total allowable catch and catch small relative to known biomass.|
NER are likely to have improved since 2010–11 (the last available survey year) when real NER were –$1.2 million (in 2016–17 dollars), although it is uncertain whether NER are now positive. Compared with 2010–11, GVP in 2016–17 was higher, fewer vessels were used in the fishery, and unit fuel prices and total management costs of the fishery declined.
Notes: GVP Gross value of production. NER Net economic returns.
2.1 Description of the fishery
The Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Fishery (BSCZSF) operates in the central area of Bass Strait between the Victorian and Tasmanian scallop fisheries (Figure 2.1). In 2017, fishing was permitted throughout the management area, except in two scallop beds (Figure 2.1). Fishing was concentrated on beds east of King Island. This was a similar area to that fished in 2014, 2015 and 2016.
Fishing methods and key species
The fishery is a single-species fishery targeting dense aggregations (‘beds’) of commercial scallop (Pecten fumatus)using scallop dredges.
The fishery is managed through a range of input controls (seasonal and area closures) and output controls (total allowable catch [TAC]), together with quota statutory fishing rights and individual transferable quota controls. A TAC of 100 t also exists for doughboy scallops (Chlamys asperrima). However, except in 2003, this species is either not retained or only retained in very small amounts, because there is no market for it.
Following a three-year closure under the 2005 Ministerial Direction, the fishery reopened in 2009 under a formal harvest strategy (AFMA 2007), which was updated for the 2012 season (AFMA 2012b). The harvest strategy was substantially revised for the 2014 season (AFMA 2014) and updated in 2015 for clarity (AFMA 2015).
Management methods have changed considerably since 2009. The changes include a reduction in the scallop size limit used in the harvest strategy to define a bed as ‘commercially viable’; a shift from ‘most area closed, little area open’ to ‘most area open, little area closed’ (2014); and consideration of scallop density in determining which areas to open and close (2014).
The current harvest strategy uses a tiered management approach, whereby a 150 t TAC can initially be set as a ‘default opening’, covering the whole BSCZSF management area, to allow operators to search widely for scallop beds (AFMA 2015). The revisions to the harvest strategy in 2014 aimed, in part, to increase knowledge of the biomass by encouraging exploratory fishing outside known beds. However, the exploratory period was skipped in 2015, 2016 and 2017 in favour of a return to surveying the known King Island beds. Despite this, in recent years the survey vessels have conducted some exploratory fishing as part of the survey.
Tier 1 of the harvest strategy states that if the scientific survey identifies one or more scallop bed(s) with a combined biomass of 1,500 t or more, with scallops greater than 85 mm in length and in ‘high’ density, and these beds are closed to commercial fishing, the TAC can be increased to 1,000 t. If 800 t of this TAC is taken, the TAC can be increased to 1,500 t; it can be increased again to 2,000 t if 1,300 t is taken.
Tier 2 of the harvest strategy states that if the scientific survey identifies one or more scallop beds with a combined biomass of 3,000 t or more, and these beds are closed to commercial fishing, the TAC can be initially set to at least 2,000 t.
The 2017 fishery operated under tier 2 of the harvest strategy, with a starting TAC of 3,000 t; the TAC could be increased to a maximum of 4,880 t, based on catches during the season.
The fishery has a history of boom and bust, with the peaks (1982–1983, 1994–1996, 2003 and 2017) generally becoming progressively smaller. These peaks have been interspersed with fishery-wide closures, the most recent being from 2006 to 2008 (Figure 2.2). The number of active vessels during the 1982–1983 peak is unknown, but 103 vessels operated in the fishery during the 1995 peak.
The fishery reopened in 2009 with 26 active vessels. The number of active vessels decreased before stabilising at 11–12 vessels (12 in 2017). Despite a decrease in the number of active vessels, dredge-hours increased in 2010 to 4,853—the highest level since 2003. Dredge-hours roughly halved each year for the subsequent three years, to a low of 656 in 2013—the lowest level since 2002. Since 2013, dredge-hours have generally increased each year, to 6,894 in 2016—the highest since 1998 when there were 38 active vessels in the fishery. Dredge-hours decreased to 5,274 in 2017, despite a slight increase in catch.
Table 2.2 Main features and statistics for the BSCZSF
2016 fishing season
2017 fishing season
|Real value (2016–17)||TAC |
|Real value (2017–18)
|Commercial scallop||3,000 (+60)
e||2,885||$6.0 million||3,000 (+120)
|Doughboy scallop||100||0.3||$0.0 million||100||0.4||na|
|Effort||6,894 dredge-hours||5,274 dredge-hours|
|Observer coverage||0 days||3 days|
|Fishing methods||Scallop dredge|
|Primary landing ports||Devonport and Stanley (Tasmania); Apollo Bay, Queenscliff and San Remo (Victoria)|
|Management methods||Input controls: seasonal and area closures
Output controls: TAC, quota SFRs with ITQs
|Primary markets||Domestic: fresh|
|Management plan||Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Fishery Management Plan 2002 (amended 2014)|
a Fishery statistics are provided by fishing season, unless otherwise indicated. Real-value statistics are by financial year and are in 2016–17 dollars.
b Fishing season was 22 July – 31 December 2016.
c Fishing season was 11 July – 31 December 2017.
d Economic data for 2017–18 were not available
at the time of report drafting.
e A research quota also exists for commercial scallop (60 t in 2016 and 120 t in 2017).
ITQ Individual transferable quota. na Not available.
SFR Statutory fishing right.
TAC Total allowable catch.
2.2 Biological status
Commercial scallop (Pecten fumatus)
Commercial scallop (Pecten fumatus)
Line drawing: FAO
Scallops in the Commonwealth, Tasmanian and Victorian scallop fisheries form one genetically homogeneous population (Ovenden et al. 2016) but are managed separately. Additionally, distinct genetic links have been identified between some beds, but not others, most likely due to non-random dispersal and subsequent settlement of larvae, meaning that recruitment does not occur in a simple, predictable manner (Ovenden et al. 2016).
A fishery for commercial scallops has operated in central Bass Strait since 1973 (Young & Martin 1989). The fishery is spatially structured, with the fleet tending to congregate on one or two known beds for the season. These may be revisited for several seasons until the bed is depleted or the fleet moves to more favourable beds, either within the same area or in an entirely different area. In this way, the fishery has moved back and forth between beds in eastern and western Bass Strait several times during its history. Catch in the fishery peaked in 1982 (21,000 t) and 1983 (24,000 t), landed by an unknown number of vessels. The next peaks were in 1994 (8,100 t landed by 73 vessels) and 1995 (7,700 t landed by 103 vessels).
The fishery reopened in 2009, following a three-year closure under Ministerial Direction. Operators initially focused on beds north-east of Flinders Island in eastern Bass Strait, before moving to beds east of King Island in western Bass Strait in 2014. The fishery remained there for the following seasons.
In the early years after reopening, the fishery suffered from poor scallop conditions, with die-off events in 2010 (AFMA 2011) and 2011 (AFMA 2012a). In 2012, scallops were reported to be in poor condition in part of the fishery (and, conversely, in good quality in another area later in the season; DPIPWE 2012). An outbreak of paralytic shellfish toxin was detected in 2013. Management responded by increasing open areas, reducing size limits and changing season start dates. However, total landed catch declined between 2009 and 2013. Following this decline, large biomasses of scallops were discovered around King Island in 2015 (Knuckey, Koopman & Davis 2015). In response, the fishery moved to beds around King Island.
Catch, catch rates and scallop quality have all improved since the fishery moved to the King Island region. Three main beds were fished around King Island in 2014; this expanded to five in 2015 and eight in 2016. Five main beds were fished in 2017, two of which were also fished in 2016.
The harvest strategy encourages exploratory fishing. Although the exploratory fishing period was only used in 2014, logbook records in 2015, 2016 and 2017 provide evidence of some exploratory fishing around King Island during the main season (that is, outside the formal exploratory fishing period). Survey vessels have also conducted some exploratory fishing of additional sites of interest in recent years, adding to the general knowledge base. If these beds show sufficient promise, they may be formally surveyed and biomass estimates generated.
The King Island region was not fished between 1998 and 2014, and biomass surveys for the region were not completed before fishing recommenced there in 2014. However, a survey in 2015 identified three beds adjacent to King Island with a total combined biomass of ‘adult’ scallops (shell length greater than 85 mm) of 9,300 t (Knuckey, Koopman & Davis 2015), and a 2016 survey identified eight beds with a combined biomass of 22,090 t of adults (Knuckey, Koopman & Davis 2016). In 2017, four beds adjacent to King Island were surveyed with a combined biomass of 16,230 t (Knuckey et al. 2017). Beds were also surveyed north of King Island with a combined biomass of 5,460 t (‘Apollo Bay’ beds) and in eastern Bass Strait with a combined biomass of 1,090 t (‘Flinders Island’ beds; Knuckey et al. 2017). In comparison, combined biomass estimates for beds in the Flinders Island region were 3,800 t in 2016 (Knuckey, Koopman & Davis 2016) and as high as 10,100 t in 2012 (Semmens 2012).
Six beds adjacent to King Island were surveyed in 2018 with a combined biomass of adult scallops of 24,700 t, two Apollo Bay beds were surveyed with a combined biomass of 3,700 t and one Flinders Island bed was surveyed with a biomass of 1,700 t (Knuckey, Koopman & Hudson 2018). These beds were a mixture of previously surveyed beds, new beds and an amalgamation of previous, separate beds. There was a high proportion of dead scallops at two beds (Knuckey, Koopman & Hudson 2018) and there was no sign of substantial recruitment in the beds surveyed (AFMA 2018). However, biomass estimates overall are large relative to previous surveys, with one single bed estimated to contain over 14,000 t of adult scallops.
The 2017 fishery opened on 11 July 2017 with a starting TAC of 3,000 t. Fishing generally focused on the same areas as the 2014, 2015 and 2016 seasons (that is, east of King Island), and operators reported scallops in good condition. An option existed for the TAC to be increased to a maximum of 4,880 t, based on landed catch and in consultation with industry; however, the catch level to trigger the TAC increase was not reached in the required time frame. The fishery closed on 31 December 2017 with 2,964 t of the 3,000 t TAC landed.
Notes: TAC Total allowable catch. Catches before the establishment of the BSCZSF in 1986 are likely to include some catch from outside the central zone.
Source: Australian Fisheries Management Authority catch disposal records; Sahlqvist 2005.
No quantitative, model-based stock assessment is available for the BSCZSF; the current harvest strategy is dependent on biomass surveys in a combination of new and previously surveyed sites (discussed below).
Recruitment of commercial scallops in Bass Strait (Young, McLoughlin & Martin 1992) and elsewhere (for example, Port Phillip Bay; Coleman 1998) has been historically variable, and this variability appears to continue. Surveys of eastern Bass Strait in 2009 identified large numbers of small scallops north-east of Flinders Island (Harrington & Semmens 2010). Surveys in 2015, 2016 and 2017 likewise identified small scallops adjacent to Flinders Island (Knuckey, Koopman & Davies 2015, 2016; Knuckey et al. 2017). Beds in western Bass Strait have typically comprised large scallops and only limited amounts of small scallops. Although the presence of small scallops in eastern Bass Strait is an encouraging sign for the fishery, they were found in far larger amounts during the 2009 survey.
Surveys between 2009 and 2017 1 have covered a large area, encompassing approximately 60 per cent of the 6 nautical mile by 8 nautical mile fishing grids that comprised the total historical baseline of grids fished since 1991. 2 However, because of die-off events, such as those observed in 2010 and 2011, the reliability of earlier surveyed biomass estimates decreases rapidly with time, even for unfished beds. Recently, repeated surveys of some beds have shown consistent biomass estimates between years, suggesting that, at least in these surveyed areas, biomass has been stable.
Surveys in 2017 covered about 8 per cent of the grids from the historical baseline area. However, adult biomass from these surveyed beds was estimated at almost 22,800 t, the third largest estimated biomass since the fishery reopened in 2009 (surveyed beds in 2016 had an estimated biomass of almost 26,000 t and 30,100 t in 2018). By their nature, surveys target areas where scallop beds are expected to be found at a particular time, so these biomass estimates cannot be extrapolated to the whole of the historical fishing area.
Since the re-emergence of scallop beds in western Bass Strait, surveys have covered a broader area (both eastern and western Bass Strait) and more beds: 2 in 2014, 4 in 2015, 10 in 2016 and 12 in 2017. Nine beds were surveyed in 2018. This decrease is because it was decided not to resurvey all previously surveyed beds because of the cost involved and to ensure that both new and previously surveyed beds are surveyed in any one year. The harvest strategy appears at present to be effective in providing information on the biomass across a range of locations in both eastern and western Bass Strait. However, the extent of survey effort has in the past been influenced by the nature of the fishing season—for example, poor fishing seasons generally result in limited surveying and poorer information.
Stock status determination
A weight-of-evidence approach is used to determine stock status. Considering the 2010 and 2011 die-offs, the re-emergence of the beds in western Bass Strait, declining biomass in 2017 and 2018 in individual beds in both eastern and western Bass Strait, and the lack of evidence of recruitment in the most recent surveys, it is clear that the scallop biomass continues to show much variability. Even with the current harvest strategy and independent of fishing, it is possible that biomass will decline in future years as a result of other influences, such as environmental factors. However, at this stage, biomass of known beds appears substantial.
Compared with previous surveys, a relatively large biomass of 26,000 t was surveyed in the BSCZSF in 2016, 22,800 t in 2017 and 30,100 t in 2018, centred in the west. These estimates are comparable to the very large historical annual catches taken from the fishery at its peak (24,000 t in 1983), when the fleet was much larger and catches were unconstrained. Additionally, the escapement (the percentage of the known biomass not caught in a year) has been high in recent years for western Bass Strait (86 per cent in 2017, 87 per cent in 2016 and 76 per cent in 2015). Since fishing did not occur in eastern Bass Strait in these three years, escapement there was 100 per cent. As a result, the stock is classified as not overfished and not subject to overfishing.
1 Spatial data from the 2018 survey were not available at the time of drafting to enable this analysis to be updated.
2 Because different spatial reporting grids were used in the 1970s, the total historical fishing area was taken for the period 1991–2017. This is not the same as the total management area, which is far larger; the percentage covered is therefore far smaller. The 99th percentile was taken to exclude very small catches.
2.3 Economic status
Key economic trends
The most recent economic survey of the BSCZSF estimated that real net economic returns (NER), including management costs, were negative: –$1.2 million in 2009–10 and –$1.2 million in 2010–11 (2016–17 dollars; George, Vieira & New 2012). These results are comparable to those from the survey of the fishery for 1997–98 and 1998–99, when real NER were –$1.8 million and –$1.1 million, respectively (2016–17 dollars; Galeano et al. 2001).
Comparison of the fishery’s gross value of production (GVP) before and after the most recent closure (2006–2008) reveals a considerable increase immediately following reopening of the fishery (Figure 2.3). Before the closure, GVP was $0.5 million in 2004–05 and $0.2 million in 2005–06 (2016–17 dollars). Since the fishery’s reopening, higher GVPs of $1.4 million and $4.3 million were achieved in 2008–09 and 2009–10, respectively (noting that 2008–09 only captures the first month of the 2009 season). However, real GVP fell to $1.1 million in 2011–12 and $0.5 million in 2012–13. GVP has increased annually since 2013–14. In 2016–17, GVP is estimated to be $6.0 million, the highest in real terms since at least 1997–98.
Notes: GVP Gross value of production. Overlap between seasons and financial years should be taken into account in interpreting this figure. The fishery was closed between the 2006 and 2008 calendar years, inclusive.
The BSCZSF harvest strategy was first developed following the Australian Government’s Securing our Fishing Future structural adjustment program in 2006, which removed 22 licences from the fishery. The harvest strategy was implemented in 2009, following three years (2006–2008) with a zero TAC. It was revised in 2012, but not directly applied for the 2012 and 2013 fishing seasons. Instead, a somewhat less precautionary approach to protecting juvenile scallops was taken in both seasons, with a commercially viable area being determined based on a reduced minimum size limit of 85 mm rather than the 90 mm limit previously used. The harvest strategy was reviewed again in 2014 in response to concerns about the cost-effectiveness of management and the flexibility of fishing operations in the fishery. The harvest strategy is described in detail under ‘Management methods’.
Performance against economic objective
The Commonwealth Fisheries Harvest Strategy Policy (HSP; DAFF 2007) requires that harvest strategies pursue the economic objective of maximising NER. To meet this objective, the HSP recommends that harvest strategies should be designed to manage stock levels consistent with maximum economic yield (MEY), or, if MEY is unavailable, a biomass that is 1.2 times greater than the biomass at maximum sustainable yield (MSY). Negative NER in the BSCZSF in 2009–10 and 2010–11 suggest that the economic objective was not being met, and the historical pattern of depletion in the fishery suggests that fishing influences future stock levels.
The naturally sporadic and fluctuating availability of scallops in the BSCZSF makes it difficult to develop appropriate target reference points for MSY and MEY (AFMA 2015). The 2015 BSCZSF harvest strategy (AFMA 2015) recognises the difficulties associated with managing the fishery using a biomass target that is relative to virgin biomass. Within the context of ecological sustainability, maximising economic returns to the Australian community and economic, efficient management are objectives of the 2015 BSCZSF harvest strategy. A decline in management costs as a proportion of GVP suggests a movement towards more efficient management of the BSCZSF.
Since 2014, the harvest strategy has used a tiered approach to determining levels of access to the scallop resource, as described under ‘Management methods’. It takes a co-management approach and allows fishers some flexibility in where they apply their effort in the fishery. The fishery operated under the tiered harvest strategy for the first time in the 2014 fishing season.
Several factors suggest that NER in the BSCZSF may have improved from the –$1.2 million (in 2016–17 dollars) recorded in 2010–11, although it is uncertain whether NER are now positive. In real terms, GVP was around $2.7 million higher in 2016–17 than in 2010–11, reflecting an increase in catch and higher average prices. Although catch per dredge-hour was 4 per cent lower in the 2016 fishing season (2016–17 financial year) than in the 2010 season (which spanned the 2009–10 and 2010–11 financial years) (Figure 2.4), fuel prices were significantly lower in 2016–17 than in 2010–11. Fishery management costs were also lower in 2016–17 than in 2010–11. In addition, the total catch in 2016–17 was achieved with six fewer vessels (a reduction of one-third) than in 2010–11, which is expected to have reduced the economic costs for the fishery.
2.4 Environmental status
The BSCZSF has export approval under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 until October 2026. The accreditation was accompanied by several recommendations, including that the observer program be reviewed, that the Australian Fisheries Management Authority (AFMA) ensure improvements to the monitoring and analysis of bycatch and byproduct, and that issues identified in a (at the time) draft report examining stock structure of commercial scallop in Bass Strait be considered.
Haddon, Harrington & Semmens (2006) suggested that the habitat impacts from scallop dredges are low at the scale of the fishery, since fishers target areas of soft sediment and high scallop abundance to optimise economic returns. The authors were unable to detect impacts on physical habitat from a scallop dredge using single-beam acoustic surveys between 2003 and 2004. They suggested that this may be due to the naturally dynamic habitat in the region, driven by large tidal currents and heavy seas, or that the level of fishing was below that required to adversely affect the habitat. Similarly, Semmens et al. (2015) were unable to detect a significant difference between species assemblages in fished and unfished areas over a reasonably short time, indicating that scallop dredging appears to have a relatively short- to medium-term impact on species assemblages. However, Semmens et al. (2015) cautioned that this finding may be influenced by historical fishing of the area they treated as unfished, meaning that species most affected by dredging may now be too rare to be effectively sampled with scallop dredges. They also cautioned that certain species are less likely to be retained in scallop dredges, and that their absence from dredge samples in both the fished and unfished areas could mean that they were disturbed but not retained.
A level 2 (Productivity Susceptibility Analysis) ecological risk assessment considered 142 species (Hobday et al. 2007). Of these, the targeted scallops and 25 bycatch species were categorised as high risk. The Residual Risk Assessment on the high-risk species, which takes into account the mitigating effect of management measures, suggested that four invertebrate species may be at high risk: King Island crassatella (Eucrassatella kingicola), southern blue-ringed octopus (Hapalochlaena maculosa), pebble crab (Bellidilia undecimspinosa)and black-and-white seastar (Luidia australiae)(AFMA 2009). Twenty-eight habitats were also assessed, none of which were categorised as being at high risk (Hobday et al. 2007). The current management arrangements, along with only a restricted area of the fishery being fished each year since 2009, limit potential impacts on habitat and bycatch species.
AFMA publishes quarterly logbook reports of interactions with protected species on its website. No interactions were reported in the BSCZSF in 2017.
AFMA 2007, Harvest strategy for the Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Fishery, Australian Fisheries Management Authority, Canberra.
—— 2009, Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Fishery bycatch and discarding work plan, 1 June 2009 to 31 May 2011, AFMA, Canberra.
—— 2011, Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Fishery (BSCZFS) 2011 assessment and TAC setting: ScallopRAG Chair advice to commission, AFMA, Canberra.
—— 2012a, 19th meeting of the Scallop Resource Assessment Group (ScallopRAG); 1–2 February 2012, AFMA, Canberra.
—— 2012b, Harvest strategy for the Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Fishery, AFMA, Canberra.
—— 2014, Harvest strategy for the Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Fishery: April 2014, AFMA, Canberra.
—— 2015, Harvest strategy for the Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Fishery: June 2015, AFMA, Canberra.
—— 2018, Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Fishery Resource Assessment Group (ScallopRAG) Meeting 31: Meeting minutes. 20 June 2018, AFMA, Canberra
Coleman, N 1998, ‘Counting scallops and managing the fishery in Port Phillip Bay, south-east Australia’, Fisheries Research, vol. 38, pp. 145–57.
DAFF 2007, Commonwealth Fisheries Harvest Strategy: policy and guidelines, Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Canberra.
DPIPWE 2012, 2012 commercial scallop season, Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment, Hobart.
Galeano, D, Johnson, C, Levantis, C & Shafron, W 2001, Australian fisheries surveys report 2000, Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Canberra.
George, D, Vieira, S & New, R 2012, Australian fisheries surveys report 2011: results for selected fisheries 2008–09 to 2010–11, ABARES, Canberra.
Haddon, M, Harrington, JJ & Semmens, JM 2006, Juvenile scallop discard rates and bed dynamics: testing the management rules for scallops in Bass Strait, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, project 2003/017, Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute, Taroona, Tasmania.
Harrington, JJ & Semmens, JM 2010, Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Fishery: 2009 scallop surveys final report, TAFI, Taroona, Tasmania.
Hobday, AJ, Dowdney, J, Bulman, C, Sporcic, M, Fuller, M, Goodspeed, M & Hutchinson, E 2007, Ecological risk assessment for the effects of fishing: Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Sub-Fishery, report to AFMA, Canberra.
Knuckey, I, Koopman, M & Davis, M 2015, Bass Strait and Central Zone Scallop Fishery: 2015 survey, Fishwell Consulting, Queenscliff.
——, Koopman, M & Davis, M 2016, Bass Strait and Central Zone Scallop Fishery: 2016 survey, Fishwell Consulting, Queenscliff.
——, Koopman, M & Hudson, R 2018, Bass Strait and Central Zone Scallop Fishery: 2018 survey, Fishwell Consulting, Queenscliff.
——, Koopman, M, Hudson, R, Davis, M & Sullivan, A 2017, Bass Strait and Central Zone Scallop Fishery: 2017 survey, Fishwell Consulting, Queenscliff.
Ovenden, JR, Tillett, BJ, Macbeth, M, Broderick, D, Filardo, F, Street, R, Tracey, SR & Semmens, J 2016, ‘Stirred but not shaken: population and recruitment genetics of the scallop (Pecten fumatus) in Bass Strait, Australia’, ICES Journal of Marine Science, vol. 73, no. 9, pp. 2333–41.
Sahlqvist, P 2005, Consolidation of historic information for assessment of the Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Fishery, final report to AFMA, project R02/1087, AFMA, Canberra.
Semmens, JM 2012, ‘2012 May/June BSCZSF surveys’, presentation to combined ScallopRAG–ScallopMAC meeting, TAFI, Taroona, Tasmania.
——, Ovenden, JR, Jones, NAR, Mendo, TC, Macbeth, M, Broderick, D, Filardo, F, Street, R, Tracey, SR & Buxton, CD 2015, Establishing fine-scale industry based spatial management and harvest strategies for the commercial scallop, FRDC project 2008/022, IMAS, Taroona, Tasmania.
Young, PC & Martin, RB 1989, ‘The scallop fisheries of Australia and their management’, Reviews in Aquatic Sciences, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 615–38.
——, McLoughlin, RJ & Martin, RB 1992, ‘Scallop (Pecten fumatus)settlement in Bass Strait, Australia’, Journal of Shellfish Research, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 315–23.