Biosecurity Fact Sheet: Breadfruit from Fiji, Samoa and Tonga

​​Publication details

Department of Agriculture and Water Resources, October 2018

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Key facts

  • The department released the draft report for the review of biosecurity import requirements for fresh breadfruit from Fiji, Samoa and Tonga on 4 October 2018.
  • Stakeholders can submit comments on the draft report during the 60 calendar day public consultation period, closing 3 December 2018.
  • The final report will be published after consideration of comments on the draft report. The department expects to publish the final report in mid-2019.

Risk analysis for breadfruit

This risk analysis was initiated following formal market access requests for fresh breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) to Australia from Fiji and Samoa. The risk analysis was expanded to cover Tonga, which is also interested in exporting fresh breadfruit to Australia.

As a World Trade Organization member, Australia is required to assess market access proposals and develop the least trade restrictive import conditions that are scientifically justified. The same scientific principles are used by our trading partners when assessing Australian goods.

Australia currently does not allow fresh breadfruit imports from any country. However, the import of baked breadfruit from Samoa and frozen breadfruit from all countries is allowed.

The draft report proposes that the importation of commercially produced fresh breadfruit to Australia from Fiji, Samoa and Tonga be permitted, subject to a range of biosecurity import requirements.

The draft report identifies seven quarantine pests associated with breadfruit from Fiji, Samoa and Tonga that require risk management measures. These pests are:

  • Fruit flies: Fruit fly (Bactrocera facialis), Fijian fruit fly (Bactrocera passiflora) and Pacific fruit fly (Bactrocera xanthodes).
  • Mealybugs: Grey pineapple mealybug (Dysmicoccus neobrevipes), Mealybug (Dysmicoccus nesophilus), Pacific mealybug (Planococcus minor) and Cryptic mealybug (Pseudococcus cryptus).

The draft report proposes risk management measures, combined with operational systems, to manage biosecurity risks to achieve Australia’s appropriate level of protection. These measures are:

  • fruit treatment (such as high temperature forced air or irradiation) for fruit flies
  • consignment freedom verified by pre-export visual inspection and, if detected, remedial action for mealybugs

Process for a risk analysis

The objective of undertaking a risk analysis is to ensure that any fresh products imported into Australia are free from unwanted pests and diseases. The department initially identifies pests and diseases associated with fruit or vegetable production and export in the source country that are not present in Australia.

The assessment includes analysis of the pests of biosecurity concern and recommends risk management measures if required. If there are no available risk management measures to effectively manage particular biosecurity risks, trade is not permitted until suitable measures are identified.

As part of the risk analysis process, the department will also verify commercial production, packing and export practices in the source country.

How stakeholders can contribute

Stakeholders are invited to comment on the draft report during the 60 calendar day public consultation period, which closes on 3 December 2018. Stakeholders can submit their comments via the department’s website.

The final report will be published after consideration of stakeholder comments.

Breadfruit production in Fiji, Samoa and Tonga

Breadfruit production in Fiji, Samoa and Tonga is small-scale.

The availability of breadfruit in these Pacific Island countries is variable. In Fiji, the breadfruit season runs from October to May. In Samoa, supply is typically lowest in April and May however, this is not always the case. In Tonga, peak production is from December to April.

Fiji, Samoa and Tonga have access to export fresh breadfruit to New Zealand, under protocols that require a high temperature forced air treatment to mitigate fruit fly pests.

Breadfruit production in Australia

The Australian breadfruit industry is very small, with small-scale production occurring in the Northern Territory (around Darwin) and Queensland (north of Cairns). Breadfruit production in Australia is seasonal, with peak production occurring in February and March. 

Australia does not currently export breadfruit.

Further information

The department will share information and answer questions relating to this risk analysis at any time during the process.
New scientific information will also be considered at any time.

Further information on the risk analysis can be found at Breadfruit from Fiji, Samoa and Tonga or by contacting the department.

Subscribe for updates

Stakeholders interested in receiving further updates on plant biosecurity risk analyses are invited to subscribe via the department’s online subscription service at https://agriculture.custhelp.com/.

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