Final Pest Risk Analysis report Ca.L

​​​21 December 2011

This Biosecurity Advice notifies stakeholders of the release of the “Final pest risk analysis report for ‘Candidatus Liberibacter species’ and their vectors associated with Rutaceae”.

The final report recommends quarantine measures to import host plant material of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter species’ and the psyllids Diaphorina citri, Diaphorina communis and Trioza erytreae from countries where these pests are present


Australia initiated this pest risk analysis (PRA) due to the continued expansion in range of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter species’ and their vectors, particularly towards countries and regions that are approved to export fresh fruit to Australia, and the identification of new pathways for their entry.

This PRA has identified that ‘Ca. L. species’ could enter Australia with propagative material (dormant cuttings, rooted plants, seeds) and infected psyllids. The psyllids could enter Australia with fruit, propagative material (dormant cuttings, rooted plants) and fresh leaves of related natural host genera within the family Rutaceae.

The draft report was released on 30 August 2010 for a 60 day consultation period (BAA 2010/26). Following stakeholder consultation, all comments received were carefully considered in finalisation of the policy. This PRA has recommended the following quarantine measures to manage the risk posed by the ‘Ca. L. species’ and psyllids:

  • for budwood: extension of the existing policy for citrus budwood to all hosts of ‘Ca. L. species’; introduction of specific climatic conditions for growth in post-entry quarantine for disease expression; and introduction of molecular testing techniques for ‘Ca. L. species’ prior to release;
  • for seed for sowing: mandatory hot water treatment and surface sterilisation for seed of all hosts of ‘Ca. L. species’ prior to release; or if seed is sensitive to hot water treatment: mandatory surface sterilization; growth in closed government post-entry quarantine facilities under specific climatic conditions; and introduction of molecular testing techniques for ‘Ca. L. species’ prior to release;
  • for fruit: area freedom from psyllids; or systems approach using pre- and post-harvest measures ensuring fruit is not infested with psyllids; or application of a treatment to fruit known to be effective against all life stages of the psyllids.
  • for fresh leaves: area freedom from psyllids; or hot air treatment; or mandatory methyl-bromide fumigation or other approved treatment.

Available now:

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Final Pest Risk Analysis Report for ‘Candidatus Liberibacter species’ and their vectors associated with Rutaceae - PDF [2.1 MB]2342.1 MB
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Biosecurity Advice 2011/24- Final pest risk analysis report for ‘Candidatus Liberibacter species’ and their vectors associated with Rutaceae - PDF160 KB

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Dr Colin J Grant
First Assistant Secretary