Dragon fruit from Indonesia

Review of biosecurity import requirements for fresh dragon fruit from Indonesia

We are conducting a review of biosecurity import requirements for fresh dragon fruit from Indonesia.

We will conduct the review in three key steps:

This risk analysis is funded through the Australian Government’s Agricultural Competitiveness White Paper to strengthen biosecurity surveillance and analysis.

Make a submission

We invite you to submit written comments on the draft report during the 60 calendar day consultation period. Your feedback will be considered when we finalise the review.

Submissions close on 19 March 2018.

You can read the draft review and make a submission.

Have your say

Draft review

This draft report considers the biosecurity risk that may be associated with the importation of commercially produced fresh dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.) from Indonesia, for human consumption in Australia. The draft report proposes risk management measures to reduce the risk of introduction of quarantine pests and to achieve the appropriate level of protection (ALOP) for Australia.

Download the review

Document PagesFile size
Draft review of import conditions for dragon fruit from Indonesia PDF 753.46 MB
Draft review of import conditions for dragon fruit from Indonesia DOCX 755.51 MB

If you have difficulty accessing these files, visit web accessibility for assistance.

Purpose of the review

The department has prepared this review of biosecurity import requirements to assess the proposal by Indonesia for market access of fresh dragon fruit to Australia.


This review considers the biosecurity risk that may be associated with the importation of commercially produced fresh dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.) from Indonesia, for human consumption in Australia.

The review covers all commercial dragon fruit cultivars of the genus Hylocereus produced for export in all Indonesian dragon fruit production regions.

Summary of review and proposed measures

The potential pests of quarantine concern associated with fresh dragon fruit from Indonesia that have been identified as requiring risk management measures are melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae), oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), grey pineapple mealybug (Dysmicoccus neobrevipes), papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus), coffee mealybug (Planococcus lilacinus), Pacific mealybug (Planococcus minor) and Jack Beardsley mealybug (Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi).

The department was able to prepare the draft report for Indonesian dragon fruit in a short timeframe by building on the policy for Vietnamese dragon fruit, with only one additional pest, the papaya mealybug, identified in Indonesia that requires measures. Accordingly, the draft report for Indonesian dragon fruit proposes the same measures as those in the Vietnamese dragon fruit policy. The measures in place for mealybugs in the Vietnam policy will also mitigate the risks posed by the additional mealybug identified in the Indonesian draft report. Furthermore, the additional mealybug has been considered previously for fresh mango fruit from Indonesia, Vietnam and Thailand.

This draft report proposes risk management measures, combined with operational systems, to reduce the risks posed by these pests, and include:

  • Area freedom, irradiation or vapour heat treatment for fruit flies.
  • Consignment freedom verified by visual inspection and, if detected, remedial action for mealybugs.

General information

Register as a stakeholder

Biosecurity Plant Division uses a stakeholder register to distribute biosecurity policy information to stakeholders. By subscribing to the Stakeholder Register, you will receive Biosecurity Advice Notices on commodities of particular interest to you. To register visit stakeholder registration.

Protecting Australia from exotic pests

We undertake comprehensive risk assessments of pests and diseases and identify risk management options to address any risks of exotic pests and diseases. These measures reflect Australia’s overall approach to the management of biosecurity risk.

Zero risk is impossible. Aiming for zero risk would mean no tourists, no international travel and no imports of any commodities. Australia invests heavily in biosecurity to ensure risks are managed to the lowest possible level.

Australia exports almost two-thirds of its agricultural produce. The future of our agricultural and food industries, including their capacity to contribute to growth and jobs, depends on Australia’s capacity to maintain a good animal and plant health status.

Australia accepts imports only when we are confident the risks of pests and diseases can be managed to achieve an appropriate level of protection for Australia.

International obligations

All World Trade Organization (WTO) members are signatories to the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement), under which they have both rights and obligations.

The basic obligations of the SPS Agreement are that SPS measures must:

  • be based on a risk assessment appropriate to the circumstances or drawn from standards developed by the World Organisation for Animal Health and the International Plant Protection Convention
  • only be applied to the extent necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health
  • be based on science
  • not arbitrarily or unjustifiably discriminate between WTO members, or be a disguised restriction on trade.

Under the SPS Agreement, each WTO Member is entitled to maintain a level of protection it considers appropriate to protect human, animal or plant life or health within its territory – in other words, its appropriate level of protection.

Appropriate level of protection (ALOP)

The appropriate level of protection (ALOP) for Australia is defined in the Biosecurity Act 2015 as ‘a high level of sanitary and phytosanitary protection aimed at reducing biosecurity risks to very low, but not to zero’. This definition was agreed with all our state and territory governments and recognises that a zero-risk stance is impractical.

The ALOP is a broad objective, and risk management measures are established to achieve that objective.

Read more about Australia’s ALOP

Meeting Australia’s food standards

Imported food for human consumption must satisfy Australia’s food standards. Australian law requires that all food, including imported fresh fruit, meets the standards set out in the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code and the requirements of the Imported Food Control Act 1992. Each state and territory also has its own food laws that must be met.

Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ) is responsible for developing and maintaining the Code, including Standard 1.4.2, maximum residue limits. The standards apply to all food in Australia, irrespective of whether it is grown domestically or imported.

Timing of imports

Following assessment of the pest risks identified, if risk management measures achieve Australia’s ALOP, imports may be permitted. It will however be a commercial decision by an Australian importer to apply for an import permit, if required, in order for imports to commence.

Biosecurity risk

The term ‘biosecurity risk’ is used to describe the combination of the likelihood and the consequences of a pest or disease of biosecurity concern entering, establishing and spreading in Australia.

Australia’s biosecurity system protects our unique environment and agricultural sector, and supports our reputation as a safe and reliable trading nation. This has significant economic, environmental and community benefits for all Australians.

Contact information

For more information, stakeholders can email Plant stakeholders or phone +61 2 6272 5094.