About my region – Richmond-Tweed New South Wales
About my region is a series of individual profiles of the agricultural, forestry and fisheries industries in your region. This regional profile presents an overview of the agriculture, fisheries and forestry sectors in the Richmond-Tweed region and the recent New South Wales financial performance of the broadacre, dairy and vegetable industries.
The Richmond-Tweed region of New South Wales is located in the far north east corner of the state, including the coastal and ranges areas. The region includes the major regional towns of Lismore, Casino, Ballina, and Murwillumbah and comprises the six local government areas of Ballina, Byron, Kyogle, Lismore, Richmond Valley, and Tweed. The region covers a total area of around 10,200 square kilometres or 1 per cent of New South Wales and is home to approximately 248,500 people (ABS 2018).
Agricultural land in the Richmond-Tweed region occupies 6,100 square kilometres, or 59 per cent of the region. Areas classified as conservation and natural environments (nature conservation, protected areas and minimal use) occupy 2,300 square kilometres, or 22 per cent of the region. The most common land use by area is grazing modified pastures, which occupies 3,800 square kilometres or 37 per cent of the Richmond-Tweed region (ABARES 2016).
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) data from the August 2020 Labour Force Survey indicate that around 117,300 people were employed in the Richmond-Tweed region. The region accounts for 3 per cent of total employment in New South Wales and 7 per cent of all people employed in the New South Wales agriculture, forestry and fishing sector.
Health care and social assistance was the largest employment sector with 20,800 people, followed by construction with 14,900 people, and retail trade with 14,200 people. Other important employment sectors in the region were education and training; accommodation and food services; and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry and fishing sector employed 6,100 people, representing 5 per cent of the region's workforce.
Value of agricultural production
In 2018–19, the gross value of agricultural production in the Richmond-Tweed region was $461 million, which was 4 per cent of the total gross value of agricultural production in New South Wales ($11.7 billion).
The Richmond-Tweed region has a diverse agricultural sector. The most important commodities in the region based on the gross value of agricultural production were cattle and calves ($95 million), followed by macadamias ($81 million) and nurseries ($68 million). These commodities together contributed 53 per cent of the total value of agricultural production in the region. In 2018–19 the Richmond-Tweed region accounted for 56 per cent ($41 million) of the total value of the state's sugarcane production.
Number and type of farms
ABS data indicate that in 2018–19 there were 1,477 farms in the Richmond-Tweed region with an estimated value of agricultural operations of $40,000 or more. The region contains 6 per cent of all farm businesses in New South Wales.
New South Wales
Number of farms
% of Region
Number of farms
Contribution of region to state total %
|Beef Cattle Farming (Specialised)||522||35.3||7,009||7.4|
|Other Fruit and Tree Nut Growing||406||27.4||635||63.9|
|Sugar Cane Growing||191||12.9||357||53.6|
|Dairy Cattle Farming||68||4.6||709||9.6|
|Vegetable Growing (Outdoors)||43||2.9||631||6.8|
|Beef Cattle Feedlots (Specialised)||34||2.3||136||25.4|
|Other Crop Growing nec||22||1.5||294||7.6|
|Poultry Farming (Meat)||16||1.1||206||7.7|
|Grain-Sheep or Grain-Beef Cattle Farming||16||1.1||3,037||0.5|
Note: Estimated value of agricultural operations $40,000 or more. Industries that constitute less than 1 per cent of the region's industry are not shown. nec Not elsewhere classified.
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, Customised report, 2020
Farms in the table above are classified according to the activities that generate most of their value of production. Beef cattle farms (522 farms) were the most common, accounting for 35 per cent of all farms in the Richmond-Tweed region, and 7 per cent of all beef cattle farms in New South Wales.
Estimated value of agricultural operations (EVAO) is a measure of the value of production from farms and a measure of their business size. Around 51 per cent of farms in the Richmond-Tweed region had an EVAO between $50,000 and $150,000. These farms accounted for only 13 per cent of the total value of agricultural operations in 2018–19. In comparison, 17 per cent of farms in the region had an EVAO of more than $500,000 and accounted for an estimated 64 per cent of the total value of agricultural operations in the Richmond – Tweed region in 2018–19.
Farm financial performance
Estimates of financial performance are available for all broadacre, beef, sheep, grains, dairy and vegetable farms in New South Wales.
The Richmond–Tweed region is a key area for commercial fishing in New South Wales. The state fisheries operating in the region include the Ocean Prawn Trawl fishery and the Ocean Trap and Line Fishery which land an average of 250 tonnes and 200 tonnes annually between Tweed Heads and south Balmain, respectively (Harrison 2010). A range of species are targeted by these fisheries including King Prawns, School Prawns, Royal Red Prawns, Balmain Bugs, Silver Trevally, Tiger Flathead, Redfish, Southern Calamari, School Whitings, Breams, Leatherjackets and Crabs (NSW DPI 2007). Larger pelagic species are also caught along the coastline within Commonwealth fisheries, including Tunas, Swordfish and Striped Marlin, however little Commonwealth weight is landed in the region. In 2007–08 it was estimated that wild-catch fisheries within in the Richmond-Tweed region had a total industry output of $16.9 million (Harrison 2010).
The aquaculture production in the region includes Oysters, Prawns, Redclaw, Silver Perch and Trouts. The region is also popular for recreational fishing. Species caught include Breams, Dusky Flathead, Sand Whiting and Dartsand Tailors (West et al 2015). Gamefishing is also a popular recreational pursuit in the region, targeting larger pelagic species such as Tunas, Marlin and Billfish.
New South Wales state data
In 2017–18 the gross value product (GVP) of New South Wales fisheries production was $170.2 million, increasing by 11% ($16.3 million) from 2016–17. New South Wales contributed 5% of the total gross value of Australian fisheries production in 2017–18. In value terms, the wild-catch sector accounted for 58.5% ($99.5 million) of the state's total production and the aquaculture sector accounted for the remaining 41.5% ($70.7 million).
New South Wales wild-catch fishery production increased by 11% ($10.2 million) to $99.5 million in 2017–18. Finfish species contributed 46% of the total New South Wales wild-catch production, valued at $45.6 million, while Crustaceans contributed 44% to the total production. The most valuable Finfish species landed were Sea Mullet ($10.2 million), Eastern School Whiting ($5 million) and Black and Yellowfin Bream ($3.2 million). Prawns contributed 20% of the total value of wild-catch fisheries with a value of $19.6 million, while Eastern Rock Lobster contributed $11.6 million and Crabs $8.4 million. Abalone GVP increased by 50% to $5.5 million from 2016–17, despite an 11% decline in catch volume. The increase in wild-catch Abalone GVP was driven by a unit price increase due to growing demand from China.
In 2017–18 the value of New South Wales aquaculture production increased by 9% ($6.1 million) to $70.7 million. Oysters production (largely Sydney Rock Oysters) made the greatest contribution to New South Wales aquaculture production, increasing by 14% to $51.8 million – the highest value since 2003–04. Prawns ($5.8 million) and Finfish aquaculture species, including Silver Perch ($2.8 million), Trouts ($2.7 million) and Barramundi ($0.7 million) make up most of the remaining aquaculture production.
Commonwealth fisheries active in New South Wales include the Small Pelagic Fishery, the Eastern Tuna and Billfish fishery (mainly supplying export markets with Tunas) and the Commonwealth trawl sector of the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark fishery. The Southern Squid Jig Fishery also operates in the waters of New South Wales.
In 2018–19, New South Wales fisheries product exports were valued at $28.8 million. The main export products include live and fresh, chilled or frozen Finfish, Tropical Rock Lobsters, and Abalone. Japan and China are the major destinations for New South Wales fisheries exports, accounting for 44% and 18% of the total value of exports in 2018–19, respectively. Other major export destinations include United States of America (14%) and Vietnam (8%).
The New South Wales coastline is an important recreational fishing area, with a multitude of inlets and estuaries from which to fish. There are also a range of game fishing tournaments throughout the year, including in the Bermagui and Port Stephens areas, targeting Tunas and Marlin species. New South Wales also contains several recreational only fishing areas, especially in the far south coast of New South Wales, a popular destination for both marine and freshwater recreational fishers. A large number of recreational fishers also fish in the Greater Sydney area, stretching from Newcastle to the Illawarra area, and comprising the city areas of Newcastle, Sydney, and Wollongong. Species commonly targeted in the area include Yellowfin Bream, Dusky Flathead, Blue Swimmer Crab, Squids, and Southern Calamari (Steffe & Murphy 2011).
Note: Where applicable the Australian Fish Names Standard AS SSA 5300-2019 is now used in this section. In this section standard fish names for groups of species or species families are not capitalised and employ the use of initial capital letters.
In 2014–15 the most recent year for which regional data are available, the total plantation area in the Richmond - Tweed region was about 36,300 hectares, comprised of 24,840 hectares of hardwood plantations and 11,480 hectares of softwood plantations. The main hardwood plantation species in New South Wales are Dunns white gum (Eucalyptus dunnii), blackbutt (Eucalyptus pilularis) and shining gum (Eucalyptus nitens). The main softwood plantation species in New South Wales are radiata pine (Pinus radiata) and other pine species (various).
In 2016 there were about 493,600 hectares of native forests in the Richmond - Tweed region, comprised mainly of Eucalypt Tall Open (197,000 hectares), Eucalypt Medium Open (117,400 hectares) and Rainforest (89,500 hectares). The majority of the native forests were privately managed (275,000 hectares), while 131,500 hectares were in conservation reserves and 75,100 hectares were on multiple use public forest available for timber production.
New South Wales state data
In 2017–18, the total plantation area in New South Wales was 393,200 hectares, comprised of 87,100 hectares of hardwood plantations and 306,000 hectares of softwood plantations.
In 2016, New South Wales had 85 sawmills (including 17 softwood sawmills), 2 post and pole processors, 7 wood based panel processors and 5 paper and paperboard processors.
In 2016, there were 19.9 million hectares of native forests in New South Wales, comprised mainly of Eucalypt Medium Woodland (6.0 million hectares), Eucalypt Medium Open (4.7 million hectares) and Eucalypt Tall Open (2.3 million hectares).
In 2017–18, the volume of native hardwood logs harvested in New South Wales was 977,000 cubic metres, valued at $128.5 million. The volume of plantation hardwood logs harvested in New South Wales was 254,000 cubic metres, valued at $21.9 million. The volume of plantation softwood logs harvested in New South Wales was 5.0 million cubic metres, valued at $393.5 million.
In 2017–18, the estimated sales and service income generated from the sale of wood products in New South Wales was $4.7 billion and for paper and paper products was $4.0 billion.
In 2016, the New South Wales forestry sector employed 16,396 workers (0.52 per cent of the total employed workforce in New South Wales) compared with 21,082 (0.62 per cent) in 2011. The number of people employed includes the following categories: forestry and logging, forestry support services, wood product manufacturing and pulp, paper and converted paper product manufacturing.
ABARES 2016, Land Use of Australia 2010–11, ABARES, Canberra, May.
ABARES 2018, Catchment scale land use of Australia – December 2018, Canberra, December.
ABS 2018, Population by Age and Sex, Regions of Australia, 2017, cat. no. 3235.0 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, accessed 10 January 2019.
ABS 2020a, Labour Force, Australia, Detailed, Quarterly, August 2020, cat. no. 6291.0 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, accessed 12 December 2020.
ABS 2020b, Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia, 2018-19, cat. no. 7503.0 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, accessed 29 May 2020.
Harrison, J 2010, A socio-economic evaluation of the commercial fishing industry in the Ballina, Clarence and Coffs Harbour regions (PDF 4.9MB), FRDC Project No. 2009/054, Fisheries Research Development Corporation and Professional Fisherman’s Association Inc., Canberra.
NSW DPI 2007, Fishery Management Strategy for the Ocean Trawl Fishery (PDF 4.9 MB), NSW Department of Primary Industries, New South Wales.
Steffe, AS & Murphy, JJ 2011, Recreational fishing surveys in the Greater Sydney Region. Fisheries final report series, no. 131, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Cronulla, New South Wales.
West et al. 2015, Survey of recreational fishing in New South Wales and the ACT, 2013/14 (PDF 3.8 MB), NSW Department of Primary Industries, New South Wales.