About my region – Mackay - Isaac - Whitsunday Queensland
About my region is a series of individual profiles of the agricultural, forestry and fisheries industries in your region. This regional profile presents an overview of the agriculture, fisheries and forestry sectors in the Mackay - Isaac - Whitsunday region and the recent Queensland financial performance of the broadacre, beef, grains, dairy and vegetable industries.
The Mackay - Isaac - Whitsunday region of Queensland is located in the east of the state and includes the Whitsunday Islands. The region comprises the three local government areas of Isaac, Mackay, and Whitsunday, and the major regional centre of Mackay. The region covers a total area of around 89,900 square kilometres, or 5 per cent of Queensland's total area, and is home to approximately 172,600 people (ABS 2018).
Agricultural land in the Mackay - Isaac - Whitsunday region occupies 79,800 square kilometres, or 89 per cent of the region. Areas classified as conservation and natural environments (nature conservation, protected areas and minimal use) occupy 6,600 square kilometres, or 7 per cent of the region. The most common land use by area is grazing native vegetation, which occupies 42,500 square kilometres or 47 per cent of the Mackay - Isaac - Whitsunday region (ABARES 2016).
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) data from the November 2019 Labour Force Survey indicate that around 85,700 people were employed in the Mackay - Isaac - Whitsunday region. The region accounts for 3 per cent of total employment in Queensland and 1 per cent of all people employed in the Queensland agriculture, forestry and fishing sector.
Mining was the largest employment sector with 16,600 people, followed by retail trade with 8,400 people, and health care and social assistance with 8,000 people. Other important employment sectors in the region were construction; accommodation and food services; and transport, postal and warehousing. The agriculture, forestry and fishing sector employed 1,100 people, representing 1 per cent of the region's workforce.
Value of agricultural production
In 2017–18, the gross value of agricultural production in the Mackay - Isaac - Whitsunday region was $1.1 billion, which was 8 per cent of the total gross value of agricultural production in Queensland ($13 billion).
The Mackay - Isaac - Whitsunday region has a diverse agricultural sector. The most important commodities in the Mackay - Isaac - Whitsunday region based on the gross value of agricultural production were cattle and calves ($474 million), followed by sugarcane ($344 million) and tomatoes ($63 million). These commodities together contributed 78 per cent of the total value of agricultural production in the region. In 2017–18 the Mackay - Isaac - Whitsunday region accounted for 38 per cent ($63 million) of the state's tomato production.
Number and type of farms
ABS data indicate that in 2017–18 there were 1,713 farms in the Mackay - Isaac - Whitsunday region with an estimated value of agricultural operations of $40,000 or more. The region contains 10 per cent of all farm businesses in Queensland.
|Industry classification||Mackay - Isaac - Whitsunday region||Queensland|
|Number of farms||% of Region||Number of farms||Contribution of region to state total %|
|Sugar Cane Growing||983||57.4||2,939||33.4|
|Beef Cattle Farming (Specialised)||538||31.4||8,288||6.5|
|Other Grain Growing||51||3.0||985||5.2|
|Vegetable Growing (Outdoors)||45||2.6||639||7.1|
|Other Fruit and Tree Nut Growing||28||1.6||761||3.6|
|Grain-Sheep or Grain-Beef Cattle Farming||26||1.5||821||3.1|
Note: Estimated value of agricultural operations $40,000 or more. Industries that constitute less than 1 per cent of the region's industry are not shown.
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics 2019
Farms in the table above are classified according to the activities that generate most of their value of production. Sugar cane farms (983 farms) were the most common, accounting for 57 per cent of all farms in the Mackay - Isaac - Whitsunday region, and 33 per cent of all sugar cane farms in Queensland.
Estimated value of agricultural operations (EVAO) is a measure of the value of production from farms and a measure of their business size. Around 16 per cent of farms in the Mackay - Isaac - Whitsunday region had an EVAO between $50,000 and $150,000. These farms accounted for only 2 per cent of the total value of agricultural operations in 2017–18. In comparison, 33 per cent of farms in the region had an EVAO of more than $500,000 and accounted for an estimated 75 per cent of the total value of agricultural operations in the Mackay - Isaac - Whitsunday region in 2017–18.
Farm financial performance
Estimates of financial performance are available for all broadacre, beef, grains, dairy and vegetable farms in Queensland.
Mackay - Isaac - Whitsunday is a key port for commercial and recreational fishing. The East Coast Trawl Fishery is the largest of Queensland's commercial fisheries operating in the region targeting mostly prawns, but also harvesting bugs, squid, and scallops. Other commercial species harvested by Queensland fisheries in the region include shark, crab, mackerel, mullet and barramundi.
Recreational fishing is popular amongst Mackay - Isaac - Whitsunday region residents—30 per cent of the population fish at least once each year, significantly higher than the state average of 17 per cent (QDAFF 2015). They fish in local coastal waters and adjacent reefs within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park for reef species such as cod, sweetlips, stripey snapper, red emperor and barred javelin. In the central coast catchment there is recreational fishing in estuaries and freshwater reaches of rivers for mud crab, bream, whiting and barramundi. Most of the fishing effort is reported by boat fishers in marine waters. This region is a popular destination for fishers travelling from other regions of Queensland and elsewhere in Australia. In 2010–11, the most recent year for which data are available, the Mackay - Isaac - Whitsunday area contributed $8 million of Queensland's total value of aquaculture production ($86.3 million), accounting for 9 per cent of the total value of production (Wingfield 2012). The Mackay - Isaac - Whitsunday area produced 501 tonnes of aquaculture production accounting for 7 per cent of the volume of Queensland aquaculture production, utilising 178 hectares of ponds. The aquaculture industry in the area employed approximately 41 persons in 2010–11. Aquaculture species produced in the Mackay - Isaac - Whitsunday area include prawns and barramundi.
In 2015–16 the total gross value of Queensland's fisheries production was $291.1 million, a decrease of 1 per cent ($2.1 million) from 2014–15. Queensland contributed 10 per cent of the total value of Australian fisheries production in 2015–16. In value terms, the wild-catch sector accounted for 60 per cent ($175.9 million) of the state's total production and the aquaculture sector accounted for the remaining 40 per cent ($118.3 million).
Queensland's wild-catch fisheries sector provides a range of fisheries products. The highest contribution being from prawns, which account for 36 per cent of the total value of wild-catch fisheries production with a value of $62.7 million, followed by coral trout (15 per cent; $26.8 million) and crabs (14 per cent; $24.2 million). Over the last decade the real value of Queensland's wild-caught fisheries products has reduced by 37 per cent. Prawns, snapper and shark, showed the largest decline in the value of production over the past decade, reducing by 35 per cent, 77 per cent and 66 per cent respectively. Competition from imported prawns in the domestic market has also placed significant downward pressure on prices in recent years.
The value of Queensland's aquaculture production has increased by 4 per cent in 2015–16 to $118.3 million. Prawn and barramundi farming account for the largest share of production by value, with prawns accounting for 68 per cent, and $80.5 million of production, followed by barramundi (25 per cent; $29.3 million).
Commonwealth fisheries active in the waters off the east coast of Queensland include the Commonwealth Eastern Tuna and Billfish fishery (mainly supplying export markets with tuna) and the Coral Sea Fishery.
In 2015–16, Queensland's fisheries product exports were valued at $199.6 million. The main export products include live and fresh, chilled or frozen fish, prawns and rock lobster. Hong Kong, Japan and the United States are the major destinations for Queensland fisheries exports, accounting for 42 per cent, 17 per cent and 14 per cent of the total value of exports in 2015–16, respectively. Other major export destinations include China (7 per cent) and Vietnam (4 per cent).
Recreational fishing is popular in Queensland. The results of the 2013–14 state wide and regional recreational fishing survey report that recreational fishing continues to be a popular activity; however the participation rate has dropped from 17 per cent in 2010 to 15 per cent in 2013. In the 12 months prior to November 2013 approximately 700,000 Queenslanders went recreational fishing (QDAF 2015). Total expenditure in the sector is estimated to be between $350 million and $420 million in 2008–09 (DEEDI 2009). The tropical waters of Queensland are also a key area for tourism, attracting anglers from around the world and Australia. Popular target species include crabs, prawns and a range of finfish species including cods and groupers, coral trout, redthroat emperor, rosy snapper, and mackerel. For freshwater activity some key species caught include barramundi, eels, silver perch, and yabby and blueclaw crayfish.
In 2014–15, the most recent year for which regional data are available, the total plantation area in the Mackay - Isaac - Whitsunday region was 1,400 hectares, comprised of 800 hectares of hardwood plantations and 700 hectares of softwood plantations. The main hardwood plantation species in Queensland is Dunns white gum (Eucalyptus dunnii). The main softwood plantation species in Queensland are Slash Pine hybrid (Pinus elliottii hybrid), Southern Pine hybrid (Pinus caribaea hybrid) and Hoop pines (Araucaria cunninghamii).
In 2016 there were 3.4 million hectares of native forests in the Mackay - Isaac - Whitsunday region, comprised mainly of Eucalypt Medium Woodland (2.0 million hectares), Eucalypt Medium Open (512,100 hectares) and Acacia (316,800 hectares). The majority of the native forests were leasehold land (1,839,700 hectares), while 927,000 hectares were privately managed and 250,900 hectares were on multiple use public forest available for timber production.
Queensland state data
In 2017–18, the total plantation area in Queensland was 230,500 hectares, comprised of 34,800 hectares of hardwood plantations and 195,600 hectares of softwood plantations.
In 2016, Queensland had 77 sawmills (including 31 softwood sawmills), 3 post and pole processors, 6 wood-based panel processors and 2 paper and paperboard processors.
In 2016, there were 51.6 million hectares of native forests in Queensland, comprised mainly of Eucalypt Medium Woodland (27.1 million hectares), Melaleuca (5.1 million hectares) and Acacia (5.1 million hectares).
In 2017–18 the volume of native hardwood logs harvested in Queensland was 279 thousand cubic metres valued at $39.7 million. There were no plantation hardwood logs harvested in this period. The volume of softwood logs harvested was 2.9 million cubic metres valued at $257.6 million.
In 2017–18, the estimated sales and service income generated from the sale of wood products in Queensland was $2.6 billion. Sales and service income for paper and paper products is not available for 2017–18.
In 2016 the Queensland forestry sector employed 9,520 workers (0.45 per cent) of the total employed workforce in Queensland compared with 12,840 (0.63 per cent) in 2011. The number of people employed includes the following categories: forestry and logging, forestry support services, wood product manufacturing and pulp, paper and converted paper product manufacturing.
ABARES 2016, Land Use of Australia 2010–11, ABARES, Canberra, May.
ABARES 2018, Catchment scale land use of Australia – December 2018, Canberra, December.
ABS 2018, Population by Age and Sex, Regions of Australia, 2017, cat. no. 3235.0 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, accessed 10 January 2019.
ABS 2019a Labour Force, Australia, Detailed, Quarterly, November 2019, cat. no. 6291.0 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, accessed 15 January 2020.
ABS 2019b Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia, 2017-18, cat. no. 7503.0 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, accessed 15 May 2019.
DEEDI 2009, Prospects for Queensland's primary industries 2009–10, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, Brisbane, Queensland.
QDAF 2015, Statewide Recreational Fishing Surveys, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Brisbane, Queensland.
Wingfield, M 2012, Ross Lobegeiger report to farmers: Aquaculture Production Survey Queensland 2010–11 (PDF 1.63 MB), Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Brisbane, Queensland, October.