About my region – Greater Melbourne Victoria
About my region is a series of individual profiles of the agricultural, forestry and fisheries industries in your region. This regional profile presents an overview of the agriculture and fisheries sectors in the Greater Melbourne region and the recent financial performance of the Victorian broadacre, dairy, and vegetable industries.
The Greater Melbourne region comprises 29 local government areas and parts of five others. It includes Melbourne and the major regional centres of Bacchus Marsh, Cockatoo, Frankston, Healesville, Macedon and Werribee. The region covers a total area of around 10,000 square kilometres or 4 per cent of Victoria's total area and is home to approximately 4.8 million people (ABS 2018).
Agricultural land in the Greater Melbourne region occupies 3,600 square kilometres, or 36 per cent of the region. Areas classified as conservation and natural environments (nature conservation, protected areas and minimal use) also occupy 1,700 square kilometres, or 17 per cent of the region. The most common land use by area is grazing modified pasture, which occupies 2,600 square kilometres or 26 per cent of the Greater Melbourne region (ABARES 2016).
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) data from the November 2019 Labour Force Survey indicate that around 2.7 million people were employed in the Greater Melbourne region. The region accounts for 79 per cent of total employment in Victoria and 25 per cent of all people employed in the Victorian agriculture, forestry and fishing sector.
Health care and social assistance was the largest employment sector with 334,100 people, followed by professional, scientific and technical services with 299,900 people, and retail trade with 270,800 people. Other important employment sectors in the region were construction; education and training; and manufacturing. The agriculture, forestry and fishing sector employed 19,500 people, representing 1 per cent of the region's workforce.
Value of agricultural production
In 2017–18, the gross value of agricultural production in the Greater Melbourne region was $1.5 billion, which was 10 per cent of the total gross value of agricultural production in Victoria ($15 billion).
The Greater Melbourne region has a diverse agricultural sector. The most important commodities in the region based on the gross value of agricultural production were nurseries ($237 million), followed by poultry ($235 million) and mushrooms ($119 million). These commodities together contributed 39 per cent of the total value of agricultural production in the region. In 2017–18 the Greater Melbourne region accounted for 97 per cent ($60 million) of the total value of Victoria's strawberries production.
Number and type of farms
ABS data indicate that in 2017–18 there were 1,600 farms in the Greater Melbourne region with an estimated value of agricultural operations of $40,000 or more. The region contains 8 per cent of all farm businesses in Victoria.
|Industry classification||Greater Melbourne region||Victoria|
|Number of farms||% of region||Number of farms||Contribution of region to state total %|
|Beef Cattle Farming (Specialised)||444||27.8||4,975||8.9|
|Dairy Cattle Farming||216||13.5||3,547||6.1|
|Vegetable Growing (Outdoors)||203||12.7||443||45.8|
|Poultry Farming (Meat)||87||5.4||149||58.3|
|Nursery Production (Outdoors)||71||4.4||155||45.9|
|Berry Fruit Growing||66||4.1||91||72.4|
|Floriculture Production (Under Cover)||60||3.7||63||94.2|
|Nursery Production (Under Cover)||53||3.3||90||58.7|
|Poultry Farming (Eggs)||49||3.1||93||52.8|
|Apple and Pear Growing||31||1.9||159||19.5|
|Stone Fruit Growing||26||1.6||169||15.2|
|Sheep-Beef Cattle Farming||25||1.6||1,286||1.9|
Note: Estimated value of agricultural operations $40,000 or more. Industries that constitute less than 1 per cent of the region's industry are not shown.
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics 2019
Farms in the table above are classified according to the activities that generate most of their value of production. Beef cattle farms (444 farms) were the most common, accounting for 28 per cent of all farms in the Greater Melbourne region, and 9 per cent of all beef cattle farms in Victoria.
Estimated value of agricultural operations (EVAO) is a measure of the value of production from farms and a measure of their business size. Around 32 per cent of farms in the Greater Melbourne region had an EVAO between $50,000 and $150,000. These farms accounted for only 4 per cent of the total value of agricultural operations in 2017–18. In comparison, 23 per cent of farms in the region had an EVAO of more than $1 million and accounted for an estimated 70 per cent of the total value of agricultural operations in the Greater Melbourne region in 2017–18.
Farm financial performance
Estimates of financial performance are available for all broadacre, dairy and vegetable farms in Victoria.
Commercial fishing in the Greater Melbourne region mostly occurs in Port Phillip Bay and Western Port. These are key landing sites and homeports for fishing vessels in Victoria. Much of this catch is sold through the Melbourne Seafood Centre (opened in 2012, previously the site of the Melbourne wholesale fish market), Australia's second largest seafood market after the Sydney Fish Market. Popular commercial species in Port Phillip Bay include: anchovy, Australian salmon, calamari, flathead, flounder, garfish, snapper, whiting, abalone, blue mussel. The main targeted species in Western Port include: snapper, King George whiting, gummy shark, mulloway, flathead and elephant fish. Victoria is the main mussel producing state in Australia with production concentrated in Port Phillip Bay and Western Port.
The Greater Melbourne region is also a key area for recreational fishing. Although the participation rate of Melbourne residents in recreational fishing is much lower than in regional centres, the large population means that most Victorian fishers live in this region. In the 2000 National Recreational and Indigenous Fishing Survey, 58 per cent of Victorian recreational fishers lived in the Greater Melbourne region (Henry & Lyle 2003). They fish in all regions of Victoria but the majority of fishing effort is recorded in Port Phillip Bay, Western Port Bay and adjacent coastal waters where flathead, King George whiting, Australian salmon and snapper are the most popular target species. Fishing from boats accounts for 70 per cent of the fishing effort in these locations. Freshwater lakes and river reaches are also popular fishing destinations for Melbourne residents, especially the Goulburn River and Upper Murray River catchments. Redfin, yabbies, trout and carp are the most popular freshwater species targeted by Melbourne residents.
In 2015–16 the gross value of Victoria's fisheries production (both aquaculture and wild–catch) was $86 million, a decrease of 3 per cent ($2.4 million) from 2014–15. Victoria contributed 3 per cent of the total value of Australian fisheries production in 2015–16. In value terms, the wild–catch sector accounted for 68 per cent ($57.8 million) of the state's total production and the aquaculture sector accounted for the remaining 32 per cent ($27.6 million).
Victoria's wild–catch fisheries sector is dominated by two main products—abalone and Southern rock lobster—which account for 34 per cent and 42 per cent, respectively, of the total value of wild-caught production in 2015–16. Over the last decade the real value of Victoria's wild-caught fisheries products has reduced by 42 per cent to $57.8 million in 2015–16.
The product for which the real value of production declined most over the past decade is wild—caught abalone, falling by 70 per cent to $19.7 million in 2015–16. This is largely attributable to the Abalone Viral Ganglioneuritis disease which has significantly reduced abalone production in the Victorian wild–catch sector in recent years. A large proportion of abalone is exported, mostly to Hong Kong, China and Japan. Exchange rate movements have a significant effect on the value of abalone exports and, in turn, production.
Commonwealth fisheries active in the waters off Victoria include the Commonwealth Trawl Sector (main source of domestic fresh fish for Sydney and Melbourne markets) and the Shark Gillnet and Shark Hook Sectors (supplies gummy shark or 'flake' to Melbourne) of the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery. The Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Fishery, Small Pelagic Fishery (mostly fishmeal for aquaculture and agriculture) and the Southern Squid Jig Fishery also operate in the waters off Victoria.
In 2015–16 the volume of Victoria's aquaculture production was 2,670 tonnes. Salmonids, blue mussels and abalone accounted for 50 per cent, 29 per cent and 12 per cent respectively of this volume and 40 per cent, 12 per cent and 40 per cent respectively of the total value of Victorian aquaculture production in 2015–16.
In 2015–16, fisheries products exported from Victoria were valued at $193 million. This value includes State and Commonwealth fisheries products exported from the ports of Victoria, which may be sourced from Victorian waters or other parts of the country. The main export products include abalone and Southern rock lobster. Vietnam, Hong Kong and Singapore are the major destinations for Victorian fisheries exports, accounting for 53 per cent, 14 per cent and 7 per cent of the total value of exports in 2015–16, respectively. Other major export destinations include Japan (6 per cent) and China (4 per cent).
Recreational fishing is popular in Victoria. In the national survey of recreational fishers undertaken in the early 2000s it was found that Victoria had approximately 550,000 recreational fishers that fished in the 12 months to May 2000, an estimated 12.7 per cent of Victoria's population (Henry & Lyle 2003). This includes gamefishing for species such as southern bluefin tuna (Green et al 2012). Recreational fishing also includes diving for Southern rock lobster, abalone, and scallops and hook and line fishing for a range of finfish species, such as snapper, King George whiting, black bream and flathead. Freshwater anglers target rainbow and brown trout, as well as native freshwater fish.
In 2014–15 the most recent year for which regional data are available, the total plantation area in the Greater Melbourne region was about 2,800 hectares, comprised of 820 hectares of hardwood plantations and 1,990 hectares of softwood plantations. The main hardwood plantation species in Victoria are Tasmanian blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) and shining gum (Eucalyptus nitens). The main softwood plantation species in Victoria is radiata pine (Pinus radiata).
In 2016 there were about 261,300 hectares of native forests in the Greater Melbourne region, comprised mainly of Eucalypt Medium Open (170,900 hectares), Eucalypt Tall Open (32,600 hectares) and Eucalypt Medium Woodland (30,100 hectares). The majority of the native forests were privately managed (95,300 hectares), while 89,800 hectares were in conservation reserves and 62,300 hectares were on multiple use public forest available for timber production.
Victoria state data
In 2017–18, the total plantation area in Victoria was 420,600 hectares, comprised of 196,300 hectares of hardwood plantations and 223,400 hectares of softwood plantations.
In 2016, Victoria had 34 sawmills (including 9 softwood sawmills), 8 post and pole processors, 3 wood based panel processors and 5 paper and paperboard processors.
In 2016, there were 7.6 million hectares of native forests in Victoria, comprised mainly of Eucalypt Medium Open (3.1 million hectares), Eucalypt Tall Open (1.4 million hectares) and Eucalypt Mallee Woodland (1.3 million hectares).
In 2017–18, the volume of native hardwood logs harvested in Victoria was 1.2 million cubic metres, valued at $103.5 million. The volume of plantation hardwood logs harvested in Victoria was 3.6 million cubic metres, valued at $262.3 million. The volume of plantation softwood logs harvested in Victoria was 4.3 million cubic metres, valued at $341.5 million.
In 2017–18, the estimated sales and service income generated from the sale of wood products in Victoria was $3.6 billion. Sales and service income for paper and paper products is not available for 2017–18.
In 2016, the Victoria forestry sector employed 15,105 workers (0.60 per cent of the total employed workforce in Victoria) compared with 20,167 (0.74 per cent) in 2011. The number of people employed includes the following categories: forestry and logging, forestry support services, wood product manufacturing and pulp, paper and converted paper product manufacturing.
ABARES 2016, Land Use of Australia 2010–11, ABARES, Canberra, May.
ABARES 2018, Catchment scale land use of Australia – December 2018, Canberra, December.
ABS 2018, Population by Age and Sex, Regions of Australia, 2017, cat. no. 3235.0 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, accessed 10 January 2019.
ABS 2019a Labour Force, Australia, Detailed, Quarterly, November 2019, cat. no. 6291.0 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, accessed 15 January 2020.
ABS 2019b Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia, 2017-18, cat. no. 7503.0 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, accessed 15 May 2019.
Green, C, Brown, P, Giri K, Bell, J & Conron, S 2012, Quantifying the recreational catch of southern bluefin tuna off the Victorian coast, Recreational Fishing Grants Program research report R09/10/03, Department of Primary Industries, Melbourne, Victoria.
Henry, GW & Lyle JM (eds) 2003, The National Recreational and Indigenous Fishing Survey. Final report to the Fisheries Research & Development Corporation, NSW Fisheries final report series, no. 48, FRDC project no. 99/158, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Canberra.