About my region – Warrnambool and South West Victoria
About my region is a series of individual profiles of the agricultural, forestry and fisheries industries in your region. This regional profile presents an overview of the agriculture, fisheries, and forestry sectors in the Warrnambool and South West region and the recent financial performance of the Victorian broadacre, dairy and vegetable industries.
The Warrnambool and South West region of Victoria is located in the south–west corner of the state, and adjoins the South Australian border. The region comprises the six local government areas of Colac–Otway, Corangamite, Glenelg, Moyne, Southern Grampians and Warrnambool, part of Surf Coast, and the major regional centres of Colac, Hamilton and Warrnambool. The region covers a total area of around 26,380 square kilometres or 11.6 per cent of Victoria's total area and is home to approximately 124,700 people (ABS 2018).
Agricultural land in the Warrnambool and South West region occupies 18,100 square kilometres, or 69 per cent of the region. Areas classified as conservation and natural environments (nature conservation, protected areas and minimal use) also occupy 4,000 square kilometres, or 15 per cent of the region. The most common land use by area is grazing modified pasture, which occupies 14,700 square kilometres or 56 per cent of the Warrnambool and South West region (ABARES 2016).
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) data from the August 2020 Labour Force Survey indicate that around 64,700 people were employed in the Warrnambool and South West region. The region accounts for 2 per cent of total employment in Victoria and 20 per cent of all people employed in the Victorian agriculture, forestry and fishing sector.
Agriculture, forestry and fishing was the largest employment sector with 18,000 people, representing 28 per cent of the region's workforce. Health care and social assistance was the second largest employment sector with 7,700 people, followed by manufacturing with 6,800 people. Other important employment sectors in the region were education and training; construction; and accommodation and food services.
Value of agricultural production
In 2018–19, the gross value of agricultural production in the Warrnambool and South West region was $3 billion, which was 19 per cent of the total gross value of agricultural production in Victoria ($15.9 billion).
The most important commodities in the Warrnambool and South West region based on the gross value of agricultural production were milk ($865 million), followed by cattle and calves ($716 million) and sheep and lambs ($623 million). These commodities together contributed 73 per cent of the total value of agricultural production in the region.
Number and type of farms
ABS data indicate that in 2018–19 there were 3,554 farms in the Warrnambool and South West region with an estimated value of agricultural operations of $40,000 or more. The region contains 18 per cent of all farm businesses in Victoria.
|Industry classification||Warrnambool and South West region||Victoria|
|Number of farms||% of Region||Number of farms||Contribution of region
to state total
|Dairy Cattle Farming||1,060||29.8||3,369||31.5|
|Beef Cattle Farming (Specialised)||1,020||28.7||4,894||20.9|
|Sheep Farming (Specialised)||602||16.9||2,982||20.2|
|Sheep-Beef Cattle Farming||481||13.5||1,262||38.1|
|Grain-Sheep or Grain-Beef Cattle Farming||173||4.9||1,940||8.9|
|Other Crop Growing nec||96||2.7||258||37.3|
|Other Grain Growing||35||1.0||1,829||1.9|
Note: Estimated value of agricultural operations $40,000 or more. Industries that constitute less than 1 per cent of the region's industry are not shown. nec Not elsewhere classified.
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, Customised report, 2020
Farms in the table above are classified according to the activities that generate most of their value of production. Dairy cattle farms (1,060 farms) were the most common, accounting for 30 per cent of all farms in the Warrnambool and South West region, and 32 per cent of all dairy farms in Victoria.
Estimated value of agricultural operations (EVAO) is a measure of the value of production from farms and a measure of their business size. Around 15 per cent of farms in the Warrnambool and South West region had an EVAO between $50,000 and $150,000. These farms accounted for only 2 per cent of the total value of agricultural operations in 2018–19. In comparison, 38 per cent of farms in the region had an EVAO of more than $500,000 and accounted for an estimated 76 per cent of the total value of agricultural operations in the Warrnambool and South West region in 2018–19.
Farm financial performance
Estimates of financial performance are available for all broadacre, dairy and vegetable farms in Victoria.
The Warrnambool and South West region contains a range of seafood sectors. The main production species caught in the area are Tropical Rock Lobster and Abalone, of which 245 tonnes and 70 tonnes were caught in 2018–19, respectively (Victorian Fisheries Authority Commercial Fish Production Information Bulletin 2019). A wide variety of Finfish and Eels are also harvested in the region and land based Abalone farms are established in the south west part of the region. The seafood processing industries servicing the area are primarily located at Warrnambool, Port Fairy and Portland.
Commonwealth catch is also landed in the region, primarily sourced from the Commonwealth Trawl Sector and the Gillnet Hook and Trap Fishery, which accounted for 72% and 24% of the regional catch in 2018–19, respectively. The most commonly landed Commonwealth species included Blue Grenadier (1,847 tonnes), Pink Ling (828 tonnes), Gummy Shark (744 tonnes), Silver Warehou (562 tonnes), Gould’s Squid (428 tonnes) and Blue-Eye Trevalla (305 tonnes).
Recreational fishing is popular in this region. In the 2000 National Recreational and Indigenous Fishing Survey, the participation rate varied between 15 to 22% depending on the locality, much higher than the state average of 12.7% (Henry & Lyle 2003). Warrnambool/Lake Fairy is the preferred recreational fishing location in the region, according to the 2018 Victorian Recreational Fishing Survey (Australian Survey Research Pty Ltd 2018). The Hopkins River and Glenelg River are also popular with many fishers. King George Whiting, Breams, Australian Salmon, Black Bream and Mullet are the most common marine species targeted by fishers (Victorian Fisheries Authority 2017). Freshwater fishing is also popular for residents, with Lake Purrumbete ranked in the top ten inland fishing locations for Victorian residents (Australian Survey Research Pty Ltd 2018). Freshwater fish targeted in the area include Redfin, Trout, Chinook Salmon, Black Bream, Eels And Yabbies. Overall, the south west Victorian recreational fishing industry has a direct economic output of $325 million in 2013–14, accounting for 12.7% of the total direct output of the state (Ernst & Young 2015). During the last ten years a seasonal fishery for Southern Bluefin Tuna has developed in the continental shelf waters of this region (Green et al. 2012). Private trailer boats and charter boats access this fishery during autumn and winter from the ports of Apollo Bay, Warrnambool, Port Fairy and Portland.
Victoria state data
In 2017–18 the gross value production (GVP) of Victoria's fisheries production (both aquaculture and wild-catch) was $111 million, an increase of 19% ($17.4 million) from 2016–17. Victoria contributed 3% of the total value of Australian fisheries production in 2017–18. In value terms, the wild-catch sector accounted for 57% ($62.8 million) of the state's total production and the aquaculture sector accounted for the remaining 43% ($48.3 million).
Victoria's wild-catch fisheries sector increased by 15% to $62.8 million in 2017–18 from $54.4 million in 2016–17. The sector is dominated by two main products; Abalone and Southern Rock Lobster, which accounted for 43% ($26.9 million) and 37% ($23.3 million), respectively, of the total value of wild-caught production. The increase in Victoria’s wild-catch GVP in 2017–18 is almost entirely attributed to higher GVP of Abalone. GVP of wild-caught Abalone increased 31% to $26.9 million driven in large part by higher unit prices, which increased by 24% to $35.6 per kilogram in 2017–18 as a result of strong demand in the Chinese market.
In 2017–18 the value of Victoria's aquaculture production increased by 23% to $48.3 million, with Abalone, Salmonids and Mussels accounting for 52%, 28.5% and 11% respectively. Almost all of the growth in the GVP of Victoria’s aquaculture in 2017–18 is attributed to a 42% increase in Abalone GVP to $25.2 million. The value of Salmonids slightly decreased by 6% to a value of $13.7 million, due to a decrease in production volume.
Commonwealth fisheries active in the waters off Victoria include the Commonwealth Trawl Sector (a major source of domestic fresh fish for Sydney and Melbourne markets) and the Shark Gillnet and Shark Hook Sectors of the Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery (which supplies Gummy Shark or 'flake' to Melbourne). The Bass Strait Central Zone Scallop Fishery, Small Pelagic Fishery (mostly fishmeal for aquaculture and agriculture) and the Southern Squid Jig Fishery also operate in the waters off Victoria.
In 2018–19, fisheries products exported from Victoria were valued at $247 million. This value includes State and Commonwealth fisheries products exported from the ports of Victoria, which may be sourced from Victorian waters or other parts of the country. The main export products include Abalone and Southern Rock Lobster. China, Hong Kong and Singapore are the major destinations for Victorian fisheries exports, accounting for 60%, 15% and 8% of the total value in 2018–19, respectively. Other major export destinations include Japan (5%) and New Zealand (5%).
Recreational fishing is popular in Victoria. In a 2015 Economic Study it was found that over 835,000 Victorian residents participate in recreational fishing annually (Ernst & Young 2015). In 2013–14 alone, Victorian residents made 6.1 million fishing trips across the state (Ernst & Young 2015), with Port Phillip Bay, Western Port and Gippsland Lakes being the most popular marine/estuarine recreational fishing locations (Australian Survey Research Pty Ltd 2018). Recreational fishing in Victoria includes gamefishing for species such as Southern Bluefin Tuna (Green et al 2012), diving for Southern Rock Lobster, Abalone, and Scallops and hook and line fishing for a range of Finfish species, such as Breams, King George Whiting, Flathead and Squid (Australian Survey Research Pty Ltd 2018).
Freshwater lakes and rivers are also popular fishing destinations for Victorian residents, especially the Murray River, Lake Eildon and the Goulburn River. Murray Cod, Rainbow Trout, Brown Trout, Redfin, Golden Perch and Yabbies are the most popular freshwater species targeted by Victorian residents (Australian Survey Research Pty Ltd 2018).
Note: Where applicable the Australian Fish Names Standard AS SSA 5300-2019 is now used in this section. In this section standard fish names for groups of species or species families are not capitalised and employ the use of initial capital letters.
In 2014–15 the most recent year for which regional data are available, the total plantation area in the Warrnambool and South West region was about 186,800 hectares, comprised of 119,680 hectares of hardwood plantations and 67,150 hectares of softwood plantations. The main hardwood plantation species in Victoria are Tasmanian blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) and shining gum (Eucalyptus nitens). The main softwood plantation species in Victoria is radiata pine (Pinus radiata).
In 2016 there were about 455,000 hectares of native forests in the Warrnambool and South West region, comprised mainly of Eucalypt Medium Open (168,200 hectares), Eucalypt Medium Woodland (156,400 hectares) and Other native forest (45,100 hectares). The majority of the native forests were in conservation reserves (222,200 hectares), while 97,700 hectares were multiple use public forest available for timber production and 88,600 hectares were privately managed.
Victoria state data
In 2017–18, the total plantation area in Victoria was 420,600 hectares, comprised of 196,300 hectares of hardwood plantations and 223,400 hectares of softwood plantations.
In 2016, Victoria had 34 sawmills (including 9 softwood sawmills), 8 post and pole processors, 3 wood based panel processors and 5 paper and paperboard processors.
In 2016, there were 7.6 million hectares of native forests in Victoria, comprised mainly of Eucalypt Medium Open (3.1 million hectares), Eucalypt Tall Open (1.4 million hectares) and Eucalypt Mallee Woodland (1.3 million hectares).
In 2017–18, the volume of native hardwood logs harvested in Victoria was 1.2 million cubic metres, valued at $103.5 million. The volume of plantation hardwood logs harvested in Victoria was 3.6 million cubic metres, valued at $262.3 million. The volume of plantation softwood logs harvested in Victoria was 4.3 million cubic metres, valued at $341.5 million.
In 2017–18, the estimated sales and service income generated from the sale of wood products in Victoria was $3.6 billion. Sales and service income for paper and paper products is not available for 2017–18.
In 2016, the Victoria forestry sector employed 15,105 workers (0.60 per cent of the total employed workforce in Victoria) compared with 20,167 (0.74 per cent) in 2011. The number of people employed includes the following categories: forestry and logging, forestry support services, wood product manufacturing and pulp, paper and converted paper product manufacturing.
ABARES 2016, Land Use of Australia 2010–11, ABARES, Canberra, May.
ABARES 2018, Catchment scale land use of Australia – December 2018, Canberra, December.
ABS 2018, Population by Age and Sex, Regions of Australia, 2017, cat. no. 3235.0 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, accessed 10 January 2019.
ABS 2020a, Labour Force, Australia, Detailed, Quarterly, August 2020, cat. no. 6291.0 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, accessed 12 December 2020.
ABS 2020b, Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia, 2018-19, cat. no. 7503.0 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, accessed 29 May 2020.
Australian Survey Research Pty Ltd 2018, Victorian Fisheries Authority Recreational Fishing in Victoria Report of survey findings (PDF 1.42 MB), Bentleigh, Victoria.
Ernst & Young 2015, Economic Study of Recreational Fishing in Victoria - Victorian Recreational Fishing Peak Body (PDF 761 KB), Ernst & Young, Australia.
Green, C, Brown, P, Giri K, Bell, J & Conron, S 2012, Quantifying the recreational catch of southern bluefin tuna off the Victorian coast, Recreational Fishing Grants Program research report R09/10/03, Department of Primary Industries, Melbourne, Victoria.
Henry, GW & Lyle JM (eds) 2003, The National Recreational and Indigenous Fishing Survey. Final report to the Fisheries Research & Development Corporation, NSW Fisheries final report series, no. 48, FRDC project no. 99/158, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Canberra.
Victorian Fisheries Authority 2017, Review of key Victorian fish stocks — 2017, Victorian Fisheries Authority Science Report Series No. 1.
Victorian Fisheries Authority 2019, Victorian Fisheries Authority Commercial Fish Production Information Bulletin 2019. Victorian Fisheries Authority, Queenscliff, Victoria, Australia.