About my region – Western Australia – Outback (South)
About my region is a series of individual profiles of the agricultural, forestry and fisheries industries in your region. This regional profile presents an overview of the agriculture, fisheries and forestry sectors in the Western Australia – Outback (South) region and the recent Western Australia financial performance of the broadacre, dairy and vegetable industries.
The Western Australia – Outback (South) region comprises 29 local government areas, and includes the regional towns of Carnarvon, Esperance, Geraldton and Kalgoorlie. The region covers a total area of around 1,371,600 square kilometres or 54 per cent of Western Australia's total area and is home to approximately 120,100 people (ABS 2018).
Agricultural land in the Western Australia – Outback (South) region occupies 586,100 square kilometres, or 43 per cent of the region. Areas classified as conservation and natural environments (nature conservation, protected areas and minimal use) occupy 761,100 square kilometres, or 55 per cent of the region. The most common land use by area is grazing native vegetation, which occupies 543,500 square kilometres or 40 per cent of the Western Australia – Outback (South) region (ABARES 2016).
Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) data from the November 2019 Labour Force Survey indicate that around 107,600 people were employed in the Western Australia – Outback (North and South) region. The region accounts for 8 per cent of total employment in Western Australia and 15 per cent of all people employed in the Western Australian agriculture, forestry and fishing sector.
Mining was the largest employment sector with 19,400 people, followed by health care and social assistance with 11,700 people, and public administration and safety with 11,200 people. Other important employment sectors in the region were construction ; retail trade; and education and training . The agriculture, forestry and fishing sector employed 5,200 people, representing 5 per cent of the region's workforce.
Value of agricultural production
In 2017–18, the gross value of agricultural production in the Western Australia – Outback (South) region was $1.9 billion, which was 22 per cent of the total gross value of agricultural production in Western Australia ($8.6 billion).
The Western Australia – Outback (South) region has a diverse agricultural sector. The most important commodities in the region based on the gross value of agricultural production were wheat ($712 million), followed by canola ($353 million) and barley ($191 million). These commodities together contributed 67 per cent of the total value of agricultural production in the region.
Number and type of farms
ABS data indicate that in 2017–18 there were 1,389 farms in the Western Australia – Outback (South) region with an estimated value of agricultural operations of $40,000 or more. The region contains 19 per cent of all farm businesses in Western Australia.
|Industry classification||Western Australia – Outback (South) region||Western Australia|
|Number of farms||% of Region||Number of farms||Contribution of region
to state total
|Other Grain Growing||609||43.9||2,009||30.3|
|Grain-Sheep or Grain-Beef Cattle Farming||307||22.1||1,932||15.9|
|Beef Cattle Farming (Specialised)||209||15.0||1,045||19.9|
|Sheep Farming (Specialised)||80||5.8||626||12.8|
|Vegetable Growing (Outdoors)||73||5.2||343||21.1|
|Sheep-Beef Cattle Farming||46||3.3||240||19.1|
|Other Fruit and Tree Nut Growing||20||1.4||86||23.0|
Note: Estimated value of agricultural operations $40,000 or more. Industries that constitute less than 1 per cent of the region's industry are not shown.
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics 2019
Farms in the table above are classified according to the activities that generate most of their value of production. Other grain growing farms (609 farms) were the most common, accounting for 44 per cent of all farms in the Western Australia – Outback (South) region, and 30 per cent of other grain growing farms in Western Australia.
Estimated value of agricultural operations (EVAO) is a measure of the value of production from farms and a measure of their business size. Around 14 per cent of farms in the Western Australia – Outback (South) region had an EVAO between $50,000 and $150,000. These farms accounted for around 1 per cent of the total value of agricultural operations in 2017–18. In comparison, 40 per cent of farms in the region had an EVAO of more than $1 million and accounted for an estimated 81 per cent of the total value of agricultural operations in the Western Australia – Outback (South) region in 2017–18.
Farm financial performance
Estimates of financial performance are available for all broadacre, dairy, and vegetable farms in Western Australia.
Western Australia – Outback (North and South) region covers most of Western Australia, including coastal areas in the south, west and north-west regions of Western Australia. It covers fisheries in all four bioregions, including all of the North Coast and Gascoyne Coast bioregions, around two–thirds of the South Coast bioregion, and a portion of the West Coast bioregion (Fletcher & Santoro 2012). The most valuable fishing activities include tropical finfish in the North Coast bioregion, prawns and scallops in the Gascoyne bioregion, abalone and mussels in the South Coast bioregion and western rocklobster and scallops in the West Coast bioregion. The primary aquaculture activities in the North Coast, Gascoyne Coast and West Coast bioregions are several varieties of pearls and pearl oysters, and barramundi, while aquaculture production in the South Coast bioregion primarily consists of mussels and oysters. Recreational fishing is also a popular activity in the region.
On the south coast Australian herring, silver trevally, whiting and Bight redfish are commonly caught by recreational fishers. In the west coast bioregion western rocklobster is an important target of recreational fishers using lobster pots or divers capturing lobsters by hand. Anglers fishing from the shore catch mullet, tailor, Australian herring and whiting. Offshore boat fishers target snapper, baldchin groper, West Australian dhufish and Spanish mackerel. In the North Coast Bioregion (Pilbara and Kimberley), barramundi, mullet, threadfin salmon, tropical snapper, mud crab and blue swimmer crab are the main species targeted. The North Coast population has the highest participation rates for recreational fishing in Western Australia. In inland areas of the Outback Region, freshwater crustaceans such as yabby, marron and freshwater prawn are important to recreational fishers.
In 2015–16, the gross value of Western Australian fisheries production (both aquaculture and wild–catch) was $593.3 million, an increase of 4 per cent ($23.7 million) from 2014–15. Western Australia accounted for 20 per cent of the total value of Australian fisheries production in 2015–16. In value terms, the wild–catch sector accounted for around 85 per cent ($504.1 million) of the state's total production and the aquaculture sector accounted for the remaining 15 per cent ($89.2 million).
Western Australia's wild–catch sector is dominated by the production of western rock lobster, which accounted for around 78 per cent of the state's total wild–catch production in 2015–16. Other major wild–catch seafood products include prawns (9 per cent) and crabs (2 per cent). Over the past decade the real value of Western Australian wild–caught fisheries is estimated to have declined by 6 per cent. The decline in value was mostly driven by a 39 per cent decline in total production volume.
The product for which the real value of production declined most over the past decade is scallops, falling by 90 per cent to $3 million in 2014–15. This was the result of a 94 per cent reduction in the volume caught. A large proportion of rock lobster production is exported, mostly to Hong Kong. Exchange rate movements have a significant effect on the value of rock lobster exports and, in turn, production.
Prawns also account for a significant proportion of Western Australian wild–catch production, accounting for an estimated 15 per cent and 8 per cent of the total volume and value, respectively, of wild–catch production in 2014–15. The value of prawn production increased by 4 per cent to $37.3 million in 2014–15. This mostly reflects a 2 per cent increase in average unit prices.
The real value of Western Australian aquaculture has declined over the past decade by 46 per cent to $89.2 million in 2015–16. Most of the decline can be attributed to a reduction in the value of pearl oyster production.
The value of aquaculture production in 2015–16 increased by 10 per cent ($8 million) to $89.2 million. This increase was mainly the result of a $10.5 million rise (15 per cent) in the value of pearl production. Pearls are the most valuable aquaculture product in the state and contributed around 88 per cent ($78.4 million) of aquaculture production value in 2015–16. The edible seafood component of Western Australia's aquaculture sector accounted for 12 per cent ($10.8 million) of total aquaculture production value in 2015–16.
In 2015–16, Western Australia's seafood product exports were valued at $504.9 million, representing a 4 per cent increase in value compared with 2014–15. The main export seafood product is western rock lobster, which accounted for 90 per cent of the state's exports of seafood in 2015–16. Other major export seafood products include prawns (5 per cent) and abalone (3 per cent). Vietnam and Hong Kong are the major destinations for Western Australia fisheries exports, accounting for 72 per cent and 13 per cent of the total value of exports in 2015–16, respectively. Other major export destinations include Japan (5 per cent) and United States (4 per cent).
Recreational fishing is a popular activity in Western Australia, with an estimated 752,000 people fishing recreationally in the state in 2015–16 (Department of Fisheries 2016). Most of the activity is the West Coast bioregion, around Perth and the surrounding area. Most boat-based recreational fishing effort occurred in coastal nearshore (60 per cent), inshore demersal (25 per cent) and estuary habitats (11 per cent), and the remainder in pelagic (2 per cent), offshore demersal (1 per cent) and freshwater (1 per cent). The key species caught by recreational fishers include School Whiting, Australian Herring, Pink Snapper, West Australian Dhufish, Silver Trevally, Black Bream, King George Whiting, Western King Wrasse, Breaksea Cod and Baldchin Groper (Ryan et al. 2017).
In 2014–15 the most recent year for which regional data are available, the total plantation area in the Western Australia - Outback (North and South) region was about 52,000 hectares, comprised of 46,410 hectares of hardwood plantations and 5,620 hectares of softwood plantations. In the Western Australia - Outback (North and South) region, the main hardwood plantation species is Tasmanian blue gum with Eucalyptus spp. and sugar gum. The major softwood plantation species is maritime pine.
In 2016 there were about 15.0 million hectares of native forests in the Western Australia - Outback (North and South) region, comprised mainly of eucalypt medium (5.2 million hectares), eucalypt mallee (5.1 million hectares) and acacia (3.1 million hectares). The majority of the native forests were Crown land (6,374,000 hectares), while 3,882,600 hectares were leasehold land and 3,177,800 hectares were on in conservation reserves. There were 62,000 hectares in multiple use native forest available for wood production.
Western Australia state data
In 2017–18, the total plantation area in Western Australia was 361,700 hectares, comprised of 253,500 hectares of hardwood plantations and 99,700 hectares of softwood plantations.
In 2016, Western Australia had 28 sawmills (including 2 softwood sawmills), 4 post and pole processors and 2 wood based panel processors.
In 2016, there were 20.4 million hectares of native forests in Western Australia, comprised mainly of eucalypt medium (8.6 million hectares), eucalypt mallee (6.3 million hectares) and acacia (3.2 million hectares).
In 2017–18, the volume of native hardwood logs harvested in Western Australia was 366 thousand cubic metres, valued at $26.9 million. The volume of plantation hardwood logs harvested in Western Australia was 3.3 million cubic metres, valued at $268.6 million. The volume of plantation softwood logs harvested in Western Australia was 849 thousand cubic metres, valued at $58.8 million.
In 2017–18, the estimated sales and service income generated from the sale of wood products in Western Australia was $1.1 billion. Sales and service income for paper and paper products is not available for 2017–18.
In 2016, the Western Australia forestry sector employed 3,746 workers (0.3 per cent) of the total employed workforce in Western Australia) compared with 5,283 (0.5 per cent) in 2011. The number of people employed includes in the following industries: forestry and logging, forestry support services, wood product manufacturing and pulp, paper and converted paper product manufacturing.
ABARES 2016, Land Use of Australia 2010–11, ABARES, Canberra, May.
ABARES 2018, Catchment scale land use of Australia – December 2018, Canberra, December.
ABS 2018, Population by Age and Sex, Regions of Australia, 2017, cat. no. 3235.0 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, accessed 16 January 2019.
ABS 2019a Labour Force, Australia, Detailed, Quarterly, November 2019, cat. no. 6291.0 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, accessed 15 January 2020 .
ABS 2019b Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia, 2017-18, cat. no. 7503.0 Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, accessed 15 May 2019.
Department of Fisheries 2016, Annual Report to Parliament 2015/16, Department of Fisheries, Western Australia. 225 pp.
Fletcher, W & Santoro, K (eds) 2012, Status reports of the fisheries and aquatic resources of Western Australia 2011–12: State of the fisheries. Fish for the future (PDF 9.0 MB), Department of Fisheries, Western Australia.
Ryan, KL, Hall, NG, Lai EK, Smallwood, CB, Taylor, SM & Wise, BS 2017, Statewide survey of boat-based recreational fishing in Western Australia 2015/16. Fisheries Research Report No. 287, Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Western Australia. 205pp.