Report 104: MV Jawan - Cattle exported to Indonesia in March 2019

Cattle exported to Indonesia in March 2019


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Voyage summary

The Jawan loaded a consignment of 5,394 cattle for three exporters. The cattle were loaded at Darwin on 29 March 2019, departing on 30 March 2019. Discharge commenced at Panjang, Indonesia on 3 April 2019, and concluded on 4 April 2019. The remaining cattle were discharged at Jakarta, Indonesia commencing on 5 April 2019 and concluding on 6 April 2019, making this a 9 day voyage.

The Independent Observer (observer) boarded the vessel in Darwin and remained on board until completion of discharge.

The mortality rate for the voyage was 0.02% (1 mortality). This does not exceed the reportable mortality rate. The cause of the mortality was not considered to be linked to any systemic failure by the exporter.

The following comments represent a summary of key observations and has been approved by the observer that accompanied the voyage.

Independent Observations of the implementation of procedures to ensure health and welfare of livestock

Exporter documentation

Exporter arrangements were available to address procedures relating to livestock management from loading through to discharge, including contingencies.


The cattle were not loaded in strict accordance with the initial load plan, with some pens stocked with too many or too few cattle. Adjustments were completed by day 3 by the two LiveCorp Accredited Stockpersons (stockpersons) and crew. Following the adjustment, the observer noted slight variations to the load plan and Australian Standards for the Export of Livestock (Version 2.3) 2011 (ASEL) requirements but noted that on the most part they maximised the space available for the cattle.


The stockpersons and crew were diligent in ensuring the health and welfare of the cattle during the voyage. The stockpersons worked independently as they were employed by different exporters. Both were observed to manage the livestock diligently.

The master, crew and stockpersons were all experienced and demonstrated their competency in performing their roles.

Daily routine

There was a daily management meeting at 10:00am every morning where the stockpersons detailed what feeding regime and other livestock requirements needed to be implemented for the following 24 hours.

Fixed dry and wet bulb thermometers were used to collate data for temperatures and relative humidity. This occurred twice a day, one at 6:00am and the other at 3:30pm. The temperature and humidity was measured on all decks.

There was one night watchperson on duty who monitored the animal welfare on all decks.

Feed and water

Feed and water was provided by an automated system. Water was available at all times. Water troughs were cleaned once a day and as needed in the case of faecal contamination.

Pellets were fed starting at 7:30am for the morning and at 4:00pm for the afternoon feed. The midday feed would vary between 10:30am to 2:00pm based on other activities for that day. Feed troughs were cleaned and fodder fines removed as needed before feeding. The accessibility of feed and water for all animals in all pens was noted as being adequate.


Ventilation consisted of 38 supply fans that provided air for all decks. Ten exhaust fans removed air from the three enclosed decks (Decks 1-3). Decks 4-8 are classified as open air.

The hottest conditions were on the open decks. The highest dry bulb temperature was on Deck 4 at 33°C on days 2 and 3. While the open decks had higher humidity, the observer noted the cattle appeared more comfortable on these decks than the enclosed decks.

Pen conditions

The decks were managed well for the duration of the voyage, and deck washing was not required. Pen conditions varied across the decks from dry to moist. The pens on Decks 6-8 remained drier than Decks 1-4.

Pens on Deck 5 housed the heavier cattle and were prepared with sawdust prior to loading.

Health and welfare

The observer did not identify any concerns relating to animal health and welfare during the voyage.


Low stress cattle handling techniques were used by the crew and stockpersons to move the livestock. The discharge to the gangway was quiet and efficient. The vessel had only one electric prodder which was used sparingly.

The observer noted the stockpersons requested that cattle only be released from their pens in conjunction with the availability of trucks at the wharf. This prevented cattle from having to stand for periods on the ramps between decks and prevented any possible issues arising from making them do so.

One incident of poor handling was noted during discharge by the importing country livestock crew. The incident involved an importing country staff member potentially breaking the tail of two animals.


The observer noted a high degree of diligence from the stockpersons, officers and crew.

The exporter arrangements were observed to be implemented during the voyage and to be compliant with ASEL requirements.

The department referred the potential tail breaking incident to the relevant party for investigation. This can be found on the department’s website.

Last reviewed: 4 November 2019
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