Report into a complaint from Animals Australia alleging non-compliance in August 2012 with Exporter Supply Chain Assurance System requirements in Kuwait

​​16 May 2013

Executive Summary

On 30 August 2012, the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) received a complaint from Animals Australia alleging non-compliance with Exporter Supply Chain Assurance System (ESCAS) requirements in Kuwait. The complainant alleged that Australian sheep exported under ESCAS arrangements had been offered for sale and slaughter at a location not included in an approved ESCAS. Photographs and video footage of sheep were provided that Animals Australia advised were taken on 19, 21 and 28 August 2012 at a livestock market in Kuwait.

Three exporters had the potential to have an approved ESCAS that could have a link to the sheep that were the subject of the ESCAS non-compliance allegations.

The DAFF investigation included assessment of the information provided by Animals Australia, DAFF records of export consignments, information provided by the three exporters involved in exports of sheep to Kuwait and information collected independently by DAFF.

The conclusion of the investigation is that it is highly likely that the sheep shown in the photographs and video footage taken at the Al Rai Market in Kuwait City were exported under ESCAS arrangements.

DAFF animal welfare experts assessed the video footage and determined there is evidence of non compliance with OIE animal handling and slaughter requirements as set out in the ESCAS animal welfare performance targets and measurements checklist.

Additional requirements to strengthen control and traceability in the Kuwait supply chains were put in place for all consignments of sheep exported to Kuwait from the time DAFF received the complaint from Animals Australia until the completion of the investigation.

The three exporters have been directed, in accordance with section 17 of the Australian Meat and Livestock Industry Act 1997 to undertake additional activities to strengthen control and traceability in relation to future consignments of sheep exported to the approved supply chains in Kuwait. It is a condition of the exporters’ livestock export licences that they comply with the directions.

1. The Complaint

On 30 August 2012, DAFF received a complaint from Animals Australia alleging non compliance with ESCAS arrangements in Kuwait. The complaint alleged that Australian sheep exported under ESCAS arrangements had been offered for sale and slaughter at a location not included in the approved ESCAS. The complaint included photographs and video footage of sheep that Animals Australia said were taken on 19, 21 and 28 August 2012 at a livestock market in Kuwait. The photographs are shown in Appendix 1.

DAFF also received an Animals Australia analysis of the same video footage. The analysis alleged a number of non-compliances with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) animal handling and slaughter requirements in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code (OIE animal welfare recommendations), upon which the ESCAS animal welfare performance targets and measurements checklist (ESCAS checklist) is based.

2. Legislation and Regulatory Framework

The legislation that regulates the livestock export industry is:

Export Control Act 1982
Export Control (Orders) Regulations 1982
Export Control (Animals) Order 2004
Australian Meat and Live-stock Industry Act 1997
Australian Meat and Live-stock Industry (Conditions on Live-stock Export Licences) Order 2012
Australian Meat and Live-stock Industry (Export Licensing) Regulations 1998
Australian Meat and Live-stock Industry (Standards) Order 2005

Under the ESCAS framework 1, Australian exporters must develop and implement a supply chain assurance system with their supply chain partners, approved by the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) Secretary (or delegate), that:

  • meets OIE recommendations for animal welfare,
  • demonstrates control through the supply chain,
  • enables livestock to be effectively traced by exporters within a supply chain through to, and including slaughter,
  • meets reporting and accountability requirements,
  • is independently verified and audited .

ESCAS requirements for feeder and slaughter livestock exported to Kuwait took effect from 1 March 2012.

1 Further information on the ESCAS framework is available on the DAFF website.

DAFF has developed a ‘Guideline Management of Non-Compliance: Exporter Supply Chain Assurance System (ESCAS) for Feeder and Slaughter Livestock’ that gives guidance on the regulatory action the Secretary might take in response to ESCAS non-compliance. The Guideline is neither exhaustive nor prescriptive in nature; it is intended as a guide only.

3. Conduct of the Investigation

On receipt of the complaint from Animals Australia, DAFF assessed the photographs and video footage to determine whether there was substance to the allegations of non-compliance with regulatory requirements. The initial review of the photographs and video footage supported the complaint from Animals Australia and a formal DAFF investigation was commenced.

3.1. DAFF Request for Information from Exporters

In accordance with s2.44(4) of the Export Control (Animals) Order 2004, the Secretary may approve an ESCAS subject to a condition. A condition of ESCAS approval is that the exporter must provide to DAFF any additional information that DAFF requires. DAFF identified that three exporters; Emanuel Exports Pty Ltd (Emanuel), International Livestock Export Pty Ltd (ILE) and EMS Rural Exports Pty Ltd (EMS) had received approval to export sheep to Kuwait between 1 March and 30 August 2012. As such, DAFF requested specified information relevant to the investigation from each of the three exporters.

3.2. Investigation focus

The focus of the investigation was to determine:

  1. If the sheep shown in the photographs and video footage were present in the Al Rai Market in Kuwait City on the dates alleged by Animals Australia.
  2. If the sheep shown in the photographs and video footage were sheep exported from Australia to Kuwait.
  3. If the sheep shown in the photographs and video footage were sheep exported under ESCAS arrangements (that is, after 1 March 2012).
  4. Which licensed exporter exported the sheep.
  5. If the handling and slaughter of sheep shown in the video footage provided by Animals Australia was consistent with the OIE animal welfare requirements as set out in the ESCAS checklist.

4. Investigation Findings

4.1. Assessment of DAFF Records

DAFF reviewed records of all feeder and slaughter sheep exported to Kuwait since ESCAS requirements took effect for that country on 1 March 2012. The records showed that seven consignments of sheep had been exported to Kuwait on four voyages between 1 March and 30 August 2012 and that two exporter supply chains had been approved in relation to Kuwait. The records also identified the three exporters, Emanuel, ILE and EMS, that had received approval to export sheep to Kuwait between 1 March and 30 August 2012. A summary of the consignments and supply chains is shown below in Table 1.

Emanuel and EMS export sheep into a common supply chain in Kuwait (supply chain 1) - on arrival the sheep from the two exporters are mixed in the supply chain facilities.

ILE exports sheep to a separate supply chain (supply chain 2). The two supply chains share some common facilities.

Table 1 Summary of consignments of slaughter sheep exported to Kuwait between 1 March and 30 August 2012 showing exporter, departure date, coded voyage identifier, load port, number of sheep and coded supply chain.
Exporter Depart Date Voyage Load Port Sheep Supply Chain
Emanuel 5/04/2012 1 Fremantle 63,638 1
ILE 12/05/2012 2 Fremantle 4,947 2
Emanuel 12/05/2012 Fremantle 55,585 1
Emanuel 22/06/2012 3 Fremantle 71,103 1
ILE 22/06/2012 Fremantle 5,761 2
EMS 29/06/2012 4 Port Adelaide 37,999 1
Emanuel 9/08/2012 Fremantle 67,862 1

4.2. DAFF Assessment of Information provided by Animals Australia

Origin of the Sheep

The photographs and video footage showed sheep of various breeds including Merino sheep, Awassi sheep and crossbreed sheep at a market in Kuwait. DAFF assessment of the information provided by Animals Australia found that the photographs and video footage of sheep in the Al Rai market were taken on the dates alleged by Animals Australia.

Many of the sheep in the photographs and video footage had ear tags and ear notches consistent with Australian identification systems. Some of the sheep had marks in the wool that indicate that the sheep were recently shorn. Standard 1.19 of the Australian Standards for the Export of Livestock (version 2.3) April 2011 (ASEL) requires sheep sourced for export to have no more than 25mm of wool. To ensure this requirement is met, it is common for sheep to be shorn close to the time of export from Australia.

Sheep exported from Australia are all required to have a visual National Livestock Identification System (NLIS) ear tag that bears the Property Identification Code (PIC) number of the property the sheep originated from; the tags do not identify individual animals. The sheep in the photographs and video footage appeared to have Australian NLIS tags; however the PIC codes were not readable in the video footage or photographs. As such, the investigation was unable to identify the sheep to their Australian property of origin or to a particular consignment and exporter.

Animal Welfare

The complaint from Animals Australia included two pieces of video footage, 45 seconds of footage of sheep in pens for sale in the marketplace and 42 seconds of footage of handling and slaughter of sheep.

A full assessment of the video footage of sheep in pens for sale in the marketplace was not possible because of the length and quality of the footage, but no adverse animal welfare impacts were observed in that component of the footage.

DAFF animal welfare experts reviewed the video footage of sheep handling and slaughter against the ESCAS checklist. The assessment determined that the handling and slaughter shown in the footage did not comply with several points in elements 1 (handling of livestock) and 6 (slaughter without stunning) of the sheep ESCAS checklist. The handling and slaughter non compliances are summarised in Table 2.

Table 2 - Summary of non-compliances identified during DAFF animal welfare assessment for video footage of sheep handling and slaughter against ESCAS checklist
Animal welfare performance measure or target Assessment by DAFF
Element 1 - Animal Handling
1.8 Animals are handled to avoid harm, distress or injury. Ineffective manual restraint of sheep is shown in the video footage and causes distress.
1.10 Livestock are not subjected to procedures that cause pain and suffering. The extended duration of the throat cut will cause needless pain compared to the same process performed rapidly with an appropriate knife.
Element 6 – Slaughter Without Stunning
6.3 The method of restraint employed is appropriate for the size and class of livestock being slaughtered. Manual restraint for slaughter shown in this video footage is inappropriate and ineffective.
6.4 Animals are presented for slaughter without being unduly stressed. Ineffective manual restraint of sheep shown in the video footage causes undue stress.
6.8 The head of the animal is kept in extension to prevent the edges of the wounds touching until the animal is dead. Video footage shows a sheep lying on the floor after the throat has been cut. There head is not kept in extension to prevent the edges of the wound from touching.
6.9 The method of restraint employed is working effectively. Manual restraint for slaughter shown in this video footage is ineffective.
6.10 Knives are sharpened before beginning the slaughter operation and between animals. Video footage shows throat being cut with a ‘sawing’ action. The action used by the slaughterman indicates that the knife is not sharp enough and is too short.
6.11 Knife used for slaughter is long and sharp enough to sever both carotid arteries.
6.12 The throat is cut using a single, deep, uninterrupted fast stroke of the knife.
6.15 Animals must not have water thrown on them or be otherwise disturbed prior to confirmed death. Video footage shows sheep being disturbed prior to confirmed death by the movement of other sheep.

4.3. Assessment of Information Provided by Exporters

On 7 September, DAFF wrote to each of the three exporters it considered could have a link to the sheep that were the subject of the ESCAS non-compliance allegations. The letters requested that each of the three exporters provide specified information relevant to the investigation.

A combined report was provided to DAFF from Emanuel and EMS on Supply Chain 1. ILE provided a separate report to DAFF on Supply Chain 2.

Supply Chain 1

The exporters provided all of the information requested by DAFF as well as background information on the supply chains. A summary of the information provided is set out below in Table 3.

Table 3 - Summary of information requested by DAFF and responses received from Emanuel and EMS for Supply Chain 1.
Information Requested Summary of Exporter response
Comment on the normal time taken to slaughter all animals in one consignment in the supply chain The exporters reported that in general the time taken to slaughter all sheep in a consignment exported to supply chain 1 can be between 40 to 60 days.
Any information relating to animals exported prior to 1 March remaining in the supply chain, if relevant, including the number of sheep exported prior to 1 March and details of the method of separation of the sheep exported prior to 1 March from sheep exported after 1 March 2012. The exporters provided information on the sheep exported to supply chain 1 prior to 1 March 2012. Some sheep exported to Kuwait prior to ESCAS implementation were sold to traders and local farms while others remained in the supply chain. After sheep exported under ESCAS arrangements arrived in the supply chain, they were mixed with the remaining sheep and all sheep were subject to ESCAS arrangements from that time forward.

The exporters further reported that the sheep sold to farms and traders in Kuwait prior to ESCAS implementation may be held for more than 6 months and later sold at market by the farmer or trader.
Comment on whether the appearance of the sheep in the Al Rai market are consistent with sheep exported to the supply chain. The exporters commented the bulk of sheep exported to supply chain 1 are merinos and merino crosses as depicted in the footage. The exporter also claimed that several countries export merino type breeds to Kuwait.
Detailed data for the supply chain for sheep exported since 1 March 2012 The exporters provided a detailed reconciliation of sheep exported since 1 March 2012. There was no evidence of sheep leaving the approved supply chain in the reconciliation provided.
Electronic list of property identification codes for the sheep exported to Kuwait in each of the consignments identified above. The exporters provided a list of property identification codes for each consignment of sheep exported since 1 March 2012. There were 1,485 vendors listed for the five consignments.

As there were no identifying marks on the sheep that could be used to trace the animals to a property of origin, no further analysis was performed on the vendor lists.
Exporter plans to investigate the integrity of the accountability system of the supply chain. The exporters concluded, based on the reconciliation, that there was no leakage from the supply chain.


The exporters provided information on actions taken to date including increased security, staffing changes, reaffirming support from local authorities for ESCAS and ongoing provision of independent performance audit reports.

In addition to this and during the course of the investigation, the exporters provided two independent performance audit reports (IPARs) for supply chain 1 to DAFF in accordance with the existing ESCAS approval conditions. No non-compliances with ESACS requirements were identified by these audits.

Emanuel and EMS also advised in January 2013 that security staff will be in place 24 hours a day at all abattoirs in supply chain 1.

Supply Chain 2

The exporter provided all of the information requested by DAFF as well as background information on the supply chains. A summary of the information provided is set out below in Table 4.

Table 4 - Summary of information requested by DAFF and responses received from ILE for Supply Chain 2.
Information Requested Exporter response
Comment on the normal time taken to slaughter all animals in one consignment in the supply chain The exporter reported that in general the time taken to slaughter all sheep in a consignment exported to supply chain 2 can be between 40 to 90 days.
Any information relating to animals exported prior to 1 March remaining in the supply chain, if relevant, including the number sheep exported prior to 1 March and details of the method of separation of the sheep exported prior to 1 March from sheep exported after 1 March 2012. The exporter provided information on the sheep exported to supply chain 2 prior to 1 March 2012. Similarly to supply chain 1, the exporter reported that some sheep exported to Kuwait prior to ESCAS implementation were sold to traders and local farms while others remained in the supply chain.
Comment on whether the appearance of the sheep in the Al Rai market is consistent with sheep exported to the supply chain. The exporter reported that the appearance of the sheep in the photographs is consistent with the sheep exported by ILE to supply chain 2.
Detailed data for the supply chain for sheep exported since 1 March 2012 The exporter provided a detailed reconciliation of sheep exported since 1 March 2012. There was no evidence of sheep leaving the approved supply chain in the reconciliation provided.
Electronic list of property identification codes for the sheep exported to Kuwait in each of the consignments identified above. The exporter provided a list of property identification codes for each consignment of sheep exported since 1 March 2012. There were 34 vendors listed for the two consignments.


As there were no identifying marks on the sheep that could be used to trace the sheep to a property of origin, no further analysis was performed on the vendor lists.
Exporter plans to investigate the integrity of the accountability system of the supply chain. The exporter concluded, based on the reconciliation, that there was no leakage from the supply chain.

The exporter provided information on actions taken to date including increased security, staffing changes, reaffirming support from local authorities for ESCAS compliance and ongoing provision of independent performance audit reports.

During the investigation, ILE self reported a non-compliance with ESCAS requirements in supply chain 2. Fifty-five sheep were moved from the feedlot in the approved supply chain to the Al Rai Market in Kuwait without the authorization of the exporter or importer. The exporter’s supply chain officer identified the non-compliance and put immediate corrective actions in place. All 55 sheep were retrieved from the market alive and the trucking operator responsible for the movement is no longer used in supply chain 2.

Also during the course of the investigation, the exporter provided two independent performance audit reports (IPARs) for supply chain 2 to DAFF in accordance with the existing ESCAS approval conditions. No non-compliances with ESACS requirements, other than the self reported non compliance described above, were identified by these audits.

Alternative explanation provided by exporters

The exporters provided alternative explanations for the origin of the sheep shown in the photographs and footage provided by Animals Australia. This included a report from a veterinarian on the footage and photographs. The exporters and the veterinarian’s report contended that the sheep shown in the photographs could have been exported to Kuwait prior to ESCAS implementation. The exporters’ and veterinarian’s report also argued that Awassi sheep and sheep similar in appearance to Australian merinos and Awassi crossbreed sheep could have been exported to Kuwait from other countries.

4.4. DAFF Visits to Al Rai Market

DAFF officials visited the Al Rai Market in Kuwait on two occasions to ascertain if Australian sheep exported under ESCAS arrangements were being offered for sale and slaughter outside the approved supply chain. Visits occurred on 27 September 2012 and 15 November 2012. Visits by DAFF were conducted with the knowledge and consent of the Government of Kuwait.

27 September 2012

On 27 September 2012, DAFF officers visited the Al Rai market in Kuwait City. None of the sheep observed in the market appeared to be of Australian origin. Information collected from vendors in the market indicated that Australian sourced sheep from one of the approved exporter supply chains had been available for sale at Al Rai Market in September.

15 November 2012

On 15 November 2012, a DAFF senior veterinary officer visited the Al Rai Market in Kuwait. A number of the sheep observed in the market appeared to be of Australian origin. The veterinary officer collected a number of photographs of the sheep that appeared to be of Australian origin and the photographs are shown in Appendix 2. The veterinary officer observed and reported that the ears of the sheep contained ear notching consistent with Australian identification practices. The officer also observed that the ears of the sheep were damaged and attributed the damage to ear tag removal.

5. Investigation Conclusions

The conclusion of the DAFF assessment of the photographs and video footage provided by Animals Australia of sheep in the Al Rai Market was that the sheep were highly likely to be of Australian origin and were most likely exported under ESCAS.

The investigation found that non-compliance with ESCAS requirements occurred and that this non compliance resulted in animal welfare outcomes not consistent with OIE recommendations. The investigation was unable to determine which licensed exporter exported the sheep.

In coming to this conclusion, the investigation considered the following questions.

5.1. Were the sheep shown in the photographs and video footage present in the Al Rai Market in Kuwait City on the dates alleged by Animals Australia;

The investigation concluded that the sheep in the photographs and video footage were present in the Al Rai Market on the dates alleged by Animals Australia. The Al Rai market is not part of any approved exporter supply chain assurance system in Kuwait.

5.2. Were the sheep shown in the photographs and video footage exported from Australia to Kuwait?

DAFF concluded that it is highly likely that the sheep in the photographs and video footage were exported from Australia to Kuwait. This conclusion was based on DAFF’s assessment of the sheep shown in the photographs and video footage including the breed of sheep and the presence of ear tags and ear notches.

While DAFF accepts the exporters’ submission that sheep similar in appearance are found in other countries and could be exported to Kuwait, the investigators did not accept that this was the likely origin of the sheep in the photographs and video footage provided by Animals Australia.

5.3. Were the sheep exported to Kuwait under ESCAS arrangements (i.e. post 1 March 2012)?

Having regard to all the information, the DAFF investigators concluded that, on balance, the sheep were exported under ESCAS arrangements.

The recently shorn merino sheep were most likely shorn close to the time of export in order to meet standard 1.19 of the ASEL and exported on a consignment that arrived in Kuwait shortly before the photographs and video footage were taken. The sheep were most likely exported in one of the consignments shown in Table 2 that departed Australia after 1 March 2012.

DAFF acknowledges that, as outlined in the exporters’ submission, sheep exported prior to ESCAS implementation for Kuwait (1 March 2012) could have been sold to farms and traders in Kuwait, held for 6 months or more and later sold at the market by the farmer or trader, however, DAFF did not accept that this was the most likely explanation for the sheep in the photographs provided by Animals Australia.

The independent audit reports and the reconciliation information provided by the Exporters are still considered by DAFF to provide evidence of compliance; however in this instance the audits did not capture this non-compliance.

5.4. Which licensed exporter exported the sheep?

In accordance with the regulatory framework for sheep and goats, all exporters supplying animals to a supply chain are accountable for non-compliances in that supply chain. Although it was not clear which exporter (or exporters) or supply chain facility (or facilities) was associated with the individual sheep that left the supply chain, the supply chains share common facilities and regulatory actions were applied to all three exporters supplying sheep to the supply chains in Kuwait.

5.5. Was the handling and slaughter of sheep shown in the video footage provided by Animals Australia consistent with the OIE animal welfare requirements?

The investigation concluded that the handling and slaughter of sheep shown in the video footage was not compliant with the ESCAS checklist requirements and therefore the animal welfare outcomes are not accepted as consistent with the OIE’s animal welfare standards. This conclusion was based on assessment of the video footage by DAFF animal welfare experts.

6. Regulatory Actions Taken During the Investigation

During the course of the investigation, Emanuel, EMS and ILE applied for further approvals to export sheep to the Kuwait supply chains. After taking the exporters’ ESCAS submissions into account, and having considered the information provided by Animals Australia, the information provided by the exporters and the information collected by DAFF, the delegate of the Secretary decided to approve each ESCAS subject to additional conditions.

In addition to existing ESCAS requirements, the following conditions were applied to ESCAS approvals to strengthen control and traceability within the exporters’ supply chains from the time DAFF received the complaint from Animals Australia until the completion of the investigation:

  • A supply chain officer must be in place in the two supply chains in Kuwait to undertake regular reconciliation of the animals and ensure that animals remain within the approved supply chains
  • The independent auditor must assesses whether or not the supply chain officer conducted regular reconciliation of the animals and assess the effectiveness of the supply chain officer

As the investigation advanced the following additional condition was also applied to ESCAS approvals for consignments exported to the Kuwait supply chains:

  • Monthly reports and declarations must be provided to DAFF on the reconciliation activities conducted by the supply chain officer.

7. Regulatory Action Taken Following the Investigation

In accordance with section 17 of the Australian Meat and Livestock Industry Act 1997 (AMLI Act), the exporters were directed to conduct the following activities in relation to consignments of sheep exported to the Kuwait supply chains:

Ensure that a Supply Chain Officer (SCO) is in place and that the SCO ensures animals remain within the supply chain and conducts regular reconciliation of all animals in the supply chain including:

  • whether or not any leakage of animals occurred at any point in the approved supply chain; and
  • whether or not animals consigned to each abattoir in the approved supply chain were slaughtered at the relevant abattoir.

Ensure that during each audit of the supply chain the independent auditor assesses:

  • whether the SCO conducted regular reconciliation of all animals in the supply chain including:
  • whether or not any leakage of animals occurred at any point in the approved supply chain; and
  • whether or not animals consigned to each abattoir in the approved supply chain were slaughtered at the relevant abattoir.
  • the effectiveness of actions taken by the exporter to account for the animals at all times and prevent the movement of animals outside of the supply chain.

No later than the 10th day of each month, the export licence holder must provide DAFF with:

  • a report outlining the reconciliation activities carried out by the SCO during the preceding month; and
  • a declaration from a person in management or control for the export company stating whether or not sheep exported from Australia remained within the supply chain up to the point of slaughter.

It is a condition of the exporters’ livestock export licences that they comply with these directions. If an exporter fails to comply with a direction made under section 17 of the Australian Meat and Livestock Industry Act 1997, DAFF may take action against the exporters licence.

8. Observations

8.1. Animal Identification

The visual National Livestock Identification System (NLIS) ear tags for sheep bear the Property Identification Code (PIC) number of the property from which the sheep originated, however they do not individually identify animals. During this investigation the lack of specific animal identification that can definitively link an animal to a particular exporter or consignment was limiting. The investigation considers that the use of individual identification would assist in this situation. In circumstances where DAFF receives information indicating sheep exported under ESCAS arrangements have been moved to locations outside the approved supply chains, DAFF should consider applying a requirement for individual identification of sheep exported under ESCAS in order to strengthen traceability. This could be in the form of a shipment tag that identifies the exporter and consignment that the sheep is linked to, or an individual electronic identification tag (i.e. radio frequency identification devices).

9. Appendix 1 – Photographs Provided by Animals Australia

Photo of sheep in pens taken by Animals Australia at the Al Rai Market in Kuwait.
Photo of sheep in pens taken by Animals Australia at the Al Rai Market in Kuwait.
Photo of sheep in pens taken by Animals Australia at the Al Rai Market in Kuwait.
Photo of sheep in pens taken by Animals Australia at the Al Rai Market in Kuwait.
Photo of men looking at sheep in pens taken by Animals Australia at the Al Rai Market in Kuwait.

10. Appendix 2 – Photographs Collected by DAFF

Photo of sheep in pens collected by DAFF at the Al Rai Market in Kuwait.
Photo of sheep in pens collected by DAFF at the Al Rai Market in Kuwait.
Photo of sheep in pens collected by DAFF at the Al Rai Market in Kuwait.
Photo of sheep in pens collected by DAFF at the Al Rai Market in Kuwait.
Photo of sheep in pens collected by DAFF at the Al Rai Market in Kuwait.
Photo of sheep in pens collected by DAFF at the Al Rai Market in Kuwait.
Photo of sheep in pens collected by DAFF at the Al Rai Market in Kuwait.
Photo of sheep in pens collected by DAFF at the Al Rai Market in Kuwait.
Photo of sheep in pens collected by DAFF at the Al Rai Market in Kuwait.
Photo of sheep in pens collected by DAFF at the Al Rai Market in Kuwait.

11. Appendix 3 – Abbreviations and Acronyms

DAFF Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
ESCAS Exporter Supply Chain Assurance System
OIE World Organisation for Animal Health (Office International des Epizooties)
NLIS National Livestock Identification System
PIC Property Identification Code
IGWG Industry Government Working Group
Emanuel Emanuel Exports Pty Ltd
ILE International Livestock Export Pty Ltd
EMS EMS Rural Exports Pty Ltd

Last reviewed: 4 November 2019
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