Risk assessment – fresh mangoes for human consumption into Norfolk Island from mainland Australia

​​Australia and Norfolk Island biosecurity policy framework

Under the Biosecurity Act 2015, the Australian Commonwealth is responsible for maintaining the plant biosecurity of Norfolk Island. Australia’s biosecurity policies aim to prevent exotic pests from entering, establishing and spreading on the island. Such incursions may threaten Norfolk Island’s unique flora and fauna and, in turn, the tourist and agricultural businesses of the island that depend on a relatively pest-free environment.

The Pest Risk Area to which these conditions apply is the Norfolk Island group. The Norfolk Island group (-29°02’S 167°57’E) is an external Australian territory situated approximately 1400 km due east of Evans Head on the eastern seaboard of the Australian mainland. The biota of this island group is distinct from Australia and other countries. It is comprised of three small islands, the inhabited main island—Norfolk Island, with two smaller uninhabited islands—Nepean Island, 1 km to the south, and Philip Island 6 km to the south. Norfolk and Philip Islands are the weathered remnants of volcanoes on the Norfolk Ridge linking New Caledonia and New Zealand. Soils are uniformly deep volcanic overlying basalt. Norfolk Island is the largest of the Norfolk Island group at 32 km2. It has a subtropical climate with an average rainfall of around 1300 mm per year (falling throughout the year but mostly in June and July) and an average temperature range of 12-20 °C in winter and 19-25 °C in summer. Pre-European settlement, vegetation of the island comprised subtropical rainforest consisting primarily of Araucaria heterophylla (Norfolk Island pine). However, this native vegetation has largely been cleared, with remaining vegetation now mostly conserved in Norfolk Island National Park (approximately 462 ha, including Philip and Nepean Islands). The remainder of the island is rural to rural-residential, with cattle grazing and fruit and vegetable production the main land-based rural industries.

The plant biosecurity pest status of Norfolk Island is known due to a recent survey (2012-2014), which provides a comprehensive biosecurity dataset for the whole island.

The biota of Norfolk Island comprises approximately 566 vascular plant species (430 introduced), 116 bird species (including 11 introduced and 66 vagrant species), many invertebrates (more than 1200 species) as well as 10 introduced mammal species and plant pathogens. It is biologically distinct from the rest of Australia (including Tasmania), where the predominant floral species are members of the Myrtaceae family. Norfolk Island does not contain any native Myrtaceae species. Norfolk Island’s isolation means that there are species endemic to this island group, occurring nowhere else in the world, which could be threatened by pest incursions.

The risk analysis process is an important part of Australia’s biosecurity policies. Risk analyses are conducted by the Department of Agriculture and Water Resources by technical and scientific experts. The process enables the Australian Government to consider the risks that could be associated with imported products entering Norfolk Island from the mainland and other countries. If the risks exceed Australia’s (including Norfolk Island) appropriate level of protection (ALOP), risk management measures are imposed to reduce the risks to an acceptable level. The Biosecurity Act 2015 defines Australia’s ALOP as ‘a high level of sanitary and phytosanitary protection aimed at reducing biosecurity risks to a very low level, but not to zero’. This approach is consistent with the World Trade Organization’s (WTO’s) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement).

Australia expresses its ALOP in qualitative terms. In determining and maintaining the ALOP for Norfolk Island, the scientific risk assessment process cannot take into account the potential economic impact or the effect on market competition caused by importing goods, as this would not be consistent with Australia’s international trade obligations, nor within the remit of the Act.

Policies and import conditions are designed to protect the environment of Norfolk Island by preventing the introduction of exotic pests to the island, thereby keeping biosecurity risks off shore. Products from locations external to the Norfolk Island group need to be free of exotic pests in order to satisfy the conditions for entry into Norfolk Island. However, in considering import conditions for Norfolk Island, the department has determined it will not knowingly take action that would impact, either positively or negatively, on the current biosecurity status of Norfolk Island. The baseline for this position is the 2012-14 Norfolk Island pest and disease survey.

Import conditions for all fresh fruit and vegetables for human consumption into Norfolk Island from mainland Australia

All plants and plant products for human consumption that are to be imported into Norfolk Island are subject to general conditions that must be met. Certain goods may also be subject to specific additional conditions where this is necessary to manage any biosecurity risks not addressed by the general conditions.

In this risk assessment, mainland Australia include all Australian states and territories on the mainland and the state of Tasmania.

General conditions:

  • Consignments must be free of plant biosecurity risk materials including live quarantine pests, trash and contaminants.
  • Trash includes any material other than mango fruit intended for export, for example splinter, twig, leaf material, seeds, soil, animal matter/parts or other extraneous material.
  • Prior to shipping to Norfolk Island, consignments must be verified by appropriate official government inspections, documentation, systems, reporting and certification to be free of any signs of biosecurity risk material. If required, appropriate pre-export measures (such as reconditioning or treatment) must be applied to mitigate the biosecurity risks with appropriate official government checks at the completion of the reconditioning or treatment.
  • Consignments must be packed in clean and new bags/boxes/containers. Imports are permitted for human consumption only.
  • Upon arrival on Norfolk Island, consignments are to be presented to the Department of Agriculture and Water Resources Biosecurity Officer for inspection and verification prior to release. The presence of any biosecurity risk material will necessitate remedial actions. Remedial action options include: treatment, where this is available, re-export or destruction.

Risk background–mangoes

This assessment is for fresh mangoes for human consumption. The following risks have been considered:

  • The biosecurity risks (arthropods and diseases) associated with fresh mangoes are well documented.
  • Mangoes must be commercially grown and packed. Standard commercial practices involve several production activities that provide an increased level of biosecurity control. Each step or action undertaken contributes to a reduction in the risk status and forms part of a managed pathway that results in a biosecurity risk status of at least very low level.
  • Mangoes are a host of fruit flies.  Freedom of a consignment from viable fruit flies can be achieved through area freedom certification or fruit treatments known to be effective for fruit flies such as irradiation, methyl bromide fumigation, vapour heat treatment, or hot water dip).
  • Mangoes are also susceptible to mango seed weevil (MSW). Freedom of a consignment from viable MSW can be achieved through area freedom certification or fruit treatment known to be effective for MSW such as irradiation.
  • Each mango must have all foliage (leaves and twigs) and trash removed – thus removing any biosecurity risks that are associated with these plant parts.
  • Mangoes has smooth skin and can easily be inspected for arthropods, disease symptoms, trash and contaminants. Also, inspection procedures require any signs of damage, infection or infestation to be examined more closely by cutting the fruit open and inspecting thoroughly.
  • This assessment is informed by published information, risk analyses, technical market access submissions, technical market access submissions and extensive import and export history.  The information shows that the following pest groups have the potential to be present on fresh mangoes: thrips, scales, beetles, flies, grubs/caterpillars, and some diseases.

This assessment has not attempted to distinguish between pests that are present on the mainland but which may not be present on Norfolk Island. The conditions require that fresh mangoes must be free of all quarantine pests and other biosecurity risk material.

Specific conditions for the importation of fresh mangoes for human consumption from mainland Australia to Norfolk Island under the Biosecurity Act 2015.

  1. A valid import permit is required. Note: the import permit must be obtained from the Department of Agriculture and Water Resources prior to the produce arriving in Norfolk Island.
  2. The fresh mangoes must be Australian grown and packed.
  3. Consignments must be commercially packed in clean new packaging. Each consignment must be secured (i.e. made of insect proof) prior to shipment to maintain its quarantine integrity on arriving using a secure packaging option. The packages must be clearly labelled with the kind of produce, the name of the grower or packer, and information that enables verification against accompanying documentation.
  4. The consignment must be free from live quarantine arthropods, visual symptoms of quarantine diseases and other biosecurity risk material.
  5. Each consignment must be accompanied by certification issued by a state/territory plant health certification authority, or through the Interstate Certification Assurance scheme (where appropriate) certifying that:
    1. The mangoes have:
      1. undergone [specify the treatment applied: Methyl Bromide fumigation/Vapour Heat Treatment/Hot Water Treatment/Irradiation] prior to shipment for fruit flies.
    2.  The mangoes have either:
      1. been grown and packed in an area free from Mango seed weevil (Sternochetus mangiferae) OR
      2. been treated with irradiation to a minimum absorbed dose of 300 Gy for Mango seed weevil (Sternochetus mangiferae).
    3. The mangoes in the consignment have been inspected and meet the conditions for import into Norfolk Island.
  6. Treatment for Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) and/or Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) must be undertaken in accordance with treatment requirements for fruit flies.
  7. Upon arrival on Norfolk Island, consignments are to be inspected by a Department of Agriculture and Water Resources biosecurity officer prior to release.  The presence of quarantine pests and/or other biosecurity risk material will necessitate remedial actions. Remedial action options include: treatment, where this is available, re-export or destruction.

A summary of import conditions and commercial production practices, which reflect the demonstrated ability to manage and detect all of the target pests is shown in Table 1 - Managed pathway for fresh mangoes from mainland Australia to Norfolk Island.

Mangoes managed pathway

Managed pathway for the export of fresh mangoes from mainland Australia to Norfolk Island under the authority of the Australian Department of Agriculture and Water Resources and the Biosecurity Act 2015.

Target pests: see Table 1.

Weed seeds: actionable.

Regulated articles:

  • Packaging – must be clean and new.
  • Trash – splinter, twig, leaf material, seeds, soil, animal matter/parts or other extraneous material.
Table 1 – managed pathway for fresh mangoes from mainland Australia to Norfolk Island
Pathway elementTarget risk/pestRisk management actionCritical control pointsRisk visible
Verification actionEvidence
Standard commercial practiceFlies, caterpillars, thrips, beetles, scale, fungi, bacteria, weed seedsPest management systems, including crop monitoring, inspections, chemical and/or biological controls

Cultivation and weed management

Official trapping and/or surveillance program for specific pests, where required
Regular inspections

Inspections after adverse weather events

Recommended spray program and/or biological control program

Maintain good sanitation
Yes/NoStaff and supervisor roles and responsibilities

Sprays applied per label

Training / Expertise
Grower records and spray diaries

HarvestingFree of pests and diseaseRemoval of non-compliant product

Product not left exposed to reinfestation
Inspection at harvestYesStaff training / expertiseQuality control
Product gradingTrash and contaminations

Live quarantine arthropods

Rots and disease symptoms

Discolouration and deformities

Any signs of damage
Visual inspection

Removal and isolation of diseased, damaged and infested goods

Fruit dissected and examined as necessary
Unacceptable product removed by trained staffYesEntity Quality controls and quality assurance processesCheck of grading line, packed produce and cull pile

Packing records
Inspection and Certification Diptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Thripidae, Hemiptera, bacteria, fungi, trash and contaminants

Other quarantine pests if present
Inspect, reject, treat non-conforming product (as appropriate)

Verify official survey records,  where required
Produce is free of target pests, trash and contaminants

Free of target pests and diseases

Meet the conditions for import into Norfolk Island, including treatments for specific pests, where required.

Where required, Treatment applied to produce consistent with application standard

Rejected goods segregated and identified

Packaging is appropriate
YesInspection by Commonwealth, or state or territory plant health certification authority Plant Health certificate, Phytosanitary certificate, or Plant Health Assurance certificate

Treatment certificate

Area freedom declaration, where required
Post entry verificationBiosecurity risk material, including quarantine pests, trash and contaminants Inspect to ensure import conditions are met

Goods are as described and comply with certification
600 unit inspection using standard processAll pests visible

Packaging compliance evident

Product aligns with certification
Inspection completed by competent officersCompetency assessment against department standard
Figure 1 – diagram showing the biosecurity risks of fresh mangoes from mainland Australia to Norfolk Island and the export pathway, production practices and regulatory steps taken to reduce biosecurity risks to very low.
The photo depicts a visual graphic that explains the biosecurity risks posed by mangoes imported into Norfolk Island from the Australian mainland. The risks are depicted as going from a high risk during production, harvest and packing to a low risk upon export and a very low risk upon import and release.    The key depicts the following components: the export pathway, production practices and regulatory steps.    The export pathway includes production, harvest, packing, export, import and release.    The production pathway identifies production practices including crop management, pest/disease control, weed control, pruning, monitor and spray records and official surveys.    The harvest pathway identifies harvest practices including cull non-compliance product, and limit exposure to pest infestation    The packing pathway identifies packing practices including washing and brushing, grading, removing infested and infected fruit, inspection and quality checking, packaging and treatment.    The export pathway identifies clean, new robust and secure packaging and labelling.    The regulatory controls for the export pathway include state and interstate certification assurance inspection, verification that all import conditions are met, certification and rejection of non-compliant goods.    The import pathway identifies import practices including packaging clean, new robust, labelling and segregation of goods. The regulatory steps for the import pathway includes inspection by Department of Agriculture and Water Resources    The release pathway does not have any production practices or regulatory steps identified.
Last reviewed: 4 November 2019
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