Policy and reform in the area of urban water
Urban water reforms
The Harper Review was delivered in March 2015 and provides recommendations to improve competition in the urban water sector.
The Senate Environment and Communications References Committee completed its inquiry into Stormwater management in Australia in December 2015.
COAG work program
At the 29 November 2008 meeting the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) agreed to a work program on water, which includes a range of actions to progress urban water reforms.
The work program provides a renewed approach to national urban water reform and addresses key challenges in urban water.
The Australian Government together with the states and territories is progressing the urban water actions within the work program.
Progress to date
Productivity Commission inquiry into Australia's urban water sector
In 2011, the Productivity Commission undertook a public inquiry into the case for microeconomic reform in Australia's urban water sector (link is external). The inquiry assists COAG's commitment to progress urban water reform by identifying opportunities for efficiency gains in the structural, institutional, regulatory and other arrangements that govern the sector.
National Water Initiative pricing principles
The Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council endorsed the National Water Initiative (NWI) pricing principles on 23 April 2010.
The NWI pricing principles provide a set of guidelines or road map for pricing practices and will assist jurisdictions to implement the National Water Initiative best practice water pricing commitments in a consistent way.
The NWI pricing principles comprise four sets of principles:
- recovery of capital expenditure
- setting urban water tariffs
- cost recovery for water planning and management activities
- pricing for recycled water and stormwater reuse.
The final Regulation Impact Statement explains the NWI pricing principles, summarises the stakeholders' comments received in response to the consultation regulation impact statement that was released with the draft NWI pricing principles in October 2009, and provides a response to the comments agreed by state, territory and the Australian governments.
Centres of excellence in desalination and water recycling
Hosts for a Centre of Excellence in Desalination in Perth and a Centre of Excellence in Water Recycling in Brisbane have been announced. The Australian Government provided $20 million in funding for each centre over 5 years.
Improving water and wastewater services in Indigenous communities
To support the delivery of the COAG Strategy on Water and Wastewater Services in Remote (including Indigenous) Communities, the Australian Government is providing $51.7 million in funding through the National Water Security Plan for Cities and Towns to improve water and wastewater services for 17 Indigenous communities.
National clearing house for urban water
The proposal to establish a national clearing house to facilitate best practice urban water management was investigated by the Australian Government and state and territory governments. The investigation found that information sharing mechanisms are already in place and are facilitating best practice within the urban water industry. Websites run by governments, industry associations and research organisations provide extensive information on urban water management.
A national system for reporting urban water consumption
The Australian Government and state and territory governments considered the proposal for a national system for reporting urban water consumption. The investigation found that work being undertaken by the Bureau of Meteorology and the Australian Bureau of Statistics, combined with other mechanisms, including the Water Efficiency Opportunities program, will provide data on urban water use.
Review of water restrictionsA review of water restrictions was completed in 2011—see the NWI parties review of water restrictions report on the National Water Commission archive website.
NWI urban water reform actions
The National Water Initiative preceded the COAG urban water reform framework. Paragraphs 90 to 92 of the NWI identify an initial suite of urban water reforms.
Innovation and capacity building to create water sensitive Australian cities
- Evaluating options for water sensitive urban design—a national guide (2009)
- Review of urban water entitlements in Australia 2009
- Urban water markets
- ICON Water Sensitive Urban Developments report
History of urban water reform
National Water Initiative (2004)
The National Water Initiative is Australia's blueprint for water reform and represents a shared commitment by governments to increase the efficiency of Australia's water use, leading to greater certainty for investment and productivity, for rural and urban communities, and for the environment.
The National Water Initiative was signed at the 25 June 2004 COAG meeting. The Tasmanian Government joined the Agreement in June 2005 and the Western Australia Government joined in April 2006.
The National Water Initiative aims to achieve the following outcomes:
- provide healthy, safe and reliable water supplies
- increase water use efficiency in domestic and commercial settings
- encourage the re-use and recycling of wastewater where cost effective
- facilitate water trading between and within the urban and rural sectors
- encourage innovation in water supply sourcing, treatment, storage and discharge
- achieve improved pricing for metropolitan water
COAG Water Reform Framework (1994)
Water reform in the urban sector was a significant element of the 1994 COAG Water Reform Framework. Reforms such as the introduction of two-part tariffs in which users pay a delivery charge as well as a charge for the amount of water used has encouraged more efficient and significantly lower water use per person in urban areas.