A review of the biosecurity import requirements for fresh breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) from Fiji, Samoa and Tonga
We are conducting a risk analysis for fresh breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) from Fiji, Samoa and Tonga.
We will conduct the risk analysis in three key steps:
- Announce the commencement of the risk analysis on 15 August 2017, via
Biosecurity Advice 2017-15 and the
Announcement Information Paper.
- Conduct a review of scientific knowledge of pests and diseases of concern and release the draft report on 4 October 2018, via
Biosecurity Advice 2018-25 for a 60 day public consultation period.
- Release the final report in mid-2019, following consideration of stakeholder comments.
A summary of the risk analysis background and process is available in the
Purpose of the risk analysis
We initiated this risk analysis in response to a market access request from Fiji and Samoa to export fresh breadfruit to Australia. The risk analysis has been expanded to cover Tonga, which is also interested in exporting fresh breadfruit to Australia.
As a World Trade Organization member, Australia is required to assess market access proposals and develop the least trade restrictive import conditions that are scientifically justified. Our trading partners use the same scientific principles when assessing Australian goods for importation.
Draft report - Summary
The draft report proposes that the importation of commercially produced fresh breadfruit to Australia from Fiji, Samoa and Tonga be permitted, subject to specific biosecurity requirements.
The draft report identifies seven quarantine pests associated with breadfruit from Fiji, Samoa and Tonga that require risk management measures.
- Fruit fly (Bactrocera facialis)
- Fijian fruit fly (Bactrocera passiflorae)
- Pacific fruit fly (Bactrocera xanthodes)
- Grey pineapple mealybugs (Dysmicoccus neobrevipes)
- Mealybug (Dysmicoccus nesophilus)
- Pacific mealybug (Planococcus minor)
- Cryptic mealybug (Pseudococcus cryptus).
Two of these pests (Pacific mealybug and cryptic mealybug) were assessed as regional quarantine pests for Western Australia because interstate quarantine regulations and enforcement are in place for these species. The proposed risk management measures take into account the regional differences within Australia.
The draft report proposes risk management measures, combined with operational systems, to manage biosecurity risks to achieve Australia’s appropriate level of protection. These measures are:
- fruit treatment (such as high temperature forced air or irradiation) for fruit flies
- consignment freedom verified by pre-export visual inspection and, if detected, remedial action for mealybugs
Download the draft report
If you have difficulty accessing these files, visit
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Stakeholders were invited to submit written comments on the draft report during the 60 calendar day consultation period. The public consultation period closed on 3 December 2018.
Comments received will be considered in preparing the final report.
Register as a stakeholder
The Biosecurity Plant Division uses the stakeholder register for distributing biosecurity risk analysis policy information. Stakeholders interested in receiving information and updates on biosecurity risk analyses are invited to subscribe via the department’s online
subscription service. By subscribing to
Biosecurity Risk Analysis Plant, you will receive Biosecurity Advices and other notifications relating to plant biosecurity policy.
Protecting Australia from exotic pests
Australia is free from many of the world’s most damaging plant pests, which are capable of damaging our natural environment, destroying our food production and agriculture industries, and changing our way of life. Australia’s biosecurity system, which includes the risk assessment process, helps protect us from exotic plant pests.
We undertake risk assessments of pests and identify risk management options to address any risks posed by these exotic pests. These measures reflect Australia’s overall approach to the management of biosecurity risk.
Zero risk is impossible. Aiming for zero risk would mean no tourists, no international travel and no imports of any commodities. Australia invests heavily in biosecurity to ensure risks are managed.
Australia exports almost two-thirds of its agricultural produce. The future of our agricultural and food industries, including their capacity to contribute to growth and jobs, depends on Australia’s capacity to maintain its animal and plant health status.
Australia accepts imports only when we are confident the risks of pests and diseases can be managed to achieve an appropriate level of protection for Australia.
All World Trade Organization (WTO) members are signatories to the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement), under which they have both rights and obligations.
The basic obligations of the SPS Agreement are that SPS measures must:
- be based on a risk assessment appropriate to the circumstances or drawn from standards developed by the World Organisation for Animal Health and the International Plant Protection Convention
- only be applied to the extent necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health
- be based on science
- not arbitrarily or unjustifiably discriminate between WTO members, or be a disguised restriction on trade.
Under the SPS Agreement, each WTO Member is entitled to maintain a level of protection it considers appropriate to protect human, animal or plant life or health within its territory – in other words, its appropriate level of protection.
Appropriate level of protection
The appropriate level of protection (ALOP) for Australia is defined in the
Biosecurity Act 2015 as ‘a high level of sanitary and phytosanitary protection aimed at reducing biosecurity risks to very low, but not to zero’. This definition was agreed with all our state and territory governments and recognises that a zero-risk stance is impractical.
The ALOP is a broad objective, and risk management measures are established to achieve that objective.
Read more about Australia’s ALOP
The term ‘biosecurity risk’ is used to describe the combination of the likelihood and the consequences of a pest or disease of biosecurity concern entering, establishing and spreading in Australia.
Australia's biosecurity system protects our unique environment and agricultural sector and supports our reputation as a safe and reliable trading nation. This has significant economic, environmental and community benefits for all Australians.
New scientific information
Scientific information can be provided to us at any time, even after a risk analysis has been completed. We will consider the information provided and review the analysis.
Meeting Australia's food standards
Imported food for human consumption must satisfy Australia’s food standards. Australian law requires that all food, including imported fresh fruit, meets the standards set out in the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code and the requirements of the
Imported Food Control Act 1992. Each state and territory also has its own food laws that must be met.
Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ) is responsible for developing and maintaining the Food Standards Code. The standards apply to all food in Australia, irrespective of whether it is grown domestically or imported.
Timing of imports
Following the consideration of stakeholder comments on the draft report, a final report is released. The final report reflects the completion of the risk analysis. Before imports can commence we will:
- verify that a country can action the recommended risk management measures
- publish import conditions on the Biosecurity Import Conditions system (BICON), and
- issue import permits for trade to commence.
The decision to import agricultural produce to Australia is a commercial decision between an importer in Australia and a supplier in the exporting country who can meet the import conditions.
For more information, stakeholders can email
imports or phone 1800 900 090 (option 1, option 1).