Strawberries from Japan

We have completed a final report for the fresh strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) from Japan import risk analysis. We will now verify that Japan can meet the recommended biosecurity requirements and develop import conditions.

When we do a risk analysis, we:

  • review the science on pests and diseases of concern
  • assess and analyse biosecurity risks
  • develop proposed risk management measures, if required
  • consult the public on the draft report and then review comments
  • publish the final report
  • verify that the country can meet the import requirements
  • develop import conditions
  • publish import conditions in our Biosecurity Import Conditions system (BICON).

About the risk analysis

We initiated this risk analysis because Japan requested market access for fresh strawberries. Learn more about why we carry out risk analyses and our international obligations.

This risk analysis was conducted in accordance with the Biosecurity Act 2015. We conducted an assessment of the potential quarantine pests associated with strawberries from Japan and found that:

  • the pests of concern were the same, or of the same pest groups, as those pests that had been assessed previously for other horticultural goods
  • there are appropriate risk management measures already established for these pests or pest groups.

Final Report

Summary of the final report

We recommend that the importation of fresh strawberries from Japan be permitted provided they meet the biosecurity import conditions. All imports must come from commercial production areas of Japan.

Pests

Twelve quarantine pests associated with fresh strawberry fruit are present in Japan, and need risk management measures to reduce the risk to an acceptable level. These pests are:

  • Drosophila species: drosophilid flies (Drosophila pulchrella and Drosophila subpulchrella), and spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii)
  • Spider mites: hawthorn spider mite (Amphitetranychus viennensis), spider mites (Eotetranychus smithi, Eotetranychus asiaticus and Eotetranychus geniculatus), and Kanzawa spider mite (Tetranychus kanzawai)
  • Thrips: tobacco thrips (Frankliniella fusca), Eurasian flower thrips (Frankliniella intonsa), and western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis)
  • Bacterium: angular leaf spot (Xanthomonas fragariae).

Western flower thrips has been identified as a regional quarantine pest for the Northern Territory, and another arthropod pest, Kanzawa spider mite has been identified as a regional quarantine pest for Western Australia because interstate quarantine regulations and enforcement are in place for these species. Western flower thrips was also assessed as a regulated article for all of Australia, as it is capable of harbouring and spreading emerging orthotospoviruses that are quarantine pests for Australia.

Risk management measures

We recommend a range of measures to reduce the risk of these pests, so as to achieve the appropriate level of protection for Australia. These measures are: 

  • area freedom (including pest free places of production or pest free production sites, which may require evidence of a seasonal absence) or fruit treatment (such as methyl bromide fumigation or irradiation) for Drosophila species
  • pre-export visual inspection and, if found, remedial action for spider mites and/or thrips
  • area freedom or a systems approach approved by the department for angular leaf spot.

Your feedback on the draft report

Based on stakeholder comments, and a review of scientific literature, we have made a number of changes to the risk analysis. These changes include:

  • Amendments to ‘Appendix A: Initiation and categorisation for pests of fresh strawberry fruit from Japan’ following review of further scientific literature, including to the taxonomic status of two species of spider mite (Eotetranychus sexmaculatus and Eotetranychus asiaticus) and pathway revision of one spider mite (Eotetranychus smithi).
  • The pest status of Eotetranychus sexmaculatus in Australia and Japan has been revised to 'not present', as it was determined that Eotetranychus asiaticus is not a synonym of Eotetranychus sexmaculatus. Eotetranychus asiaticus has been recorded as a pest of strawberry in Japan and a pest risk assessment for this pest was required.
  • Amendments to ‘Chapter 4: Pest risk assessments for quarantine pests’, ‘Section 4.3: Spider mites’. Addition of two additional quarantine pests Eotetranychus asiaticus and Eotetranychus smithi.
  • Removal of five species from the family Scarabaeidae (e.g. Anomala viridana) from the pest categorisation table (Appendix A). After a further review of the literature it was determined that these species had no association with strawberries.
  • Addition of ‘Appendix B: Issues raised in stakeholder comments’ which summarises the key technical issues raised by stakeholders, and how they were considered by the department.
  • Minor corrections, rewording and editorial changes for consistency, clarity and web-accessibility.

Download submissions on the draft report

Available until February 2021.

Document Pages File size
Apple and Pear Australia Ltd PDF PDF Icon 2 20 KB
Berries Australia PDF PDF Icon 2 138 KB
Fruit Growers Tasmania PDF PDF Icon 4 394 KB
New South Wales Department of Primary Industries PDF PDF Icon 3 22 KB
Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries PDF PDF Icon 2 859 KB
Western Australia Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development PDF PDF Icon 1 392 KB

Published submissions may not meet Australian Government accessibility requirements as they have not been prepared by us. If you have difficulty accessing these files, contact us for help.

Download final report

Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, February 2020.

Document Pages File size
Final report of the review of biosecurity import requirements for fresh strawberry fruit from Japan PDF PDF Icon 222 5.6  MB
Final report of the review of biosecurity import requirements for fresh strawberry fruit from Japan DOCX Word Icon 222 4.7 MB

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Draft report

We released the draft report on 6 June 2019 for a 60 calendar day public consultation period, closing on 5 August 2019.

Download draft report

Department of Agriculture, June 2019.

Available until February 2021.

Document Pages File size
Draft report of the review of biosecurity import requirements for fresh strawberry fruit from Japan PDFPDF Icon 218 4.9 MB
Draft report of the review of biosecurity import requirements for fresh strawberry fruit from Japan DOCXWord Icon 218 4.6 MB

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Announcement

More information is available in the Announcement Information Paper.

Download Announcement Information Paper

Department of Agriculture and Water Resources, November 2017.

Available until February 2021.

Document Pages File size
Announcement information paper – commencement of a review of biosecurity import requirements for fresh strawberry fruit from Japan PDFPDF Icon 3 196 KB

If you have difficulty accessing these files, visit web accessibility for help.

Trade

Australia-Japan trade

Japan is Australia’s second largest export market for agricultural products (including fisheries and forestry) with around $6 billion worth of trade in 2018–19. Japan was Australia’s largest export destination for beef in 2018–19, valued at $2.3 billion. Other key exports from Australia to Japan include wheat and barley, wine and horticulture (oranges, mandarins and table grapes). Agricultural imports from Japan were worth around $220 million in 2018–19.

Strawberry industry in Japan

In Japan, most fresh strawberries are produced in greenhouses. Fruit is harvested from November to May, which aligns with production in southern states of Australia. In 2016, Japan exported 550 tonnes of strawberries, mainly to Hong Kong, Singapore and Thailand.

Strawberry industry in Australia

Strawberries are grown in all Australian states by around 500 commercial growers. Production is concentrated in the Sunshine Coast area of Queensland; the Yarra Valley and Mornington Peninsula in Victoria; the Camden region of New South Wales; south-western Western Australia; the Adelaide Hills in South Australia; and Tasmania. As a result of these different growing regions, fruit are available throughout the year. Peak production occurs between June and October in Queensland and Western Australia, and October and May in southern areas of Australia.

In 2017–18, Australia produced more than 93,500 tonnes of strawberries valued at AU$445 million. Of this around 4,300 tonnes, worth $29.7 million, was exported. Australia currently permits imports of fresh strawberries from USA (California), New Zealand and most recently from the Republic of Korea. However, there have been very limited imports of strawberries in recent years.

Next steps

Before imports can commence we will:

  1. Verify that Japan can meet the recommended biosecurity requirements.
  2. Publish import conditions on the Biosecurity Import Conditions system (BICON).
  3. Issue import permits to importers who meet these conditions.

The decision to commence imports will be a commercial decision between an exporter in Japan and an importer in Australia. The importer must meet the import conditions as set out in BICON.

Keep informed

Register as a stakeholder

Subscribe to the plant stakeholder register to receive notices about plant biosecurity policies.

Contact us

For more information, email Imports or phone 1800 900 090 (option 1, option 1).

Last reviewed: 7 February 2020
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