We have published import conditions for greenhouse grown fresh oriental melon and rockmelon fruit from the Republic of Korea (Korea) on our Biosecurity Import Conditions system (BICON). Import permits can now be issued.
The decision to commence imports will be a commercial decision between an exporter in Korea and an importer in Australia. The importer must meet the import conditions as set out in BICON.
When we do a risk analysis, we:
- review the science on pests and diseases of concern
- assess and analyse biosecurity risks
- develop proposed risk management measures, if required
- consult the public on the draft report and then review comments
- publish the final report
- verify that the country can meet the recommended risk management measures
- develop import conditions
- publish import conditions in our Biosecurity Import Conditions system (BICON).
About the risk analysis
We initiated this risk analysis because Korea requested market access for greenhouse-grown fresh oriental melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa) and rockmelon (Cucumis melo var. cantalupo) fruit. Learn more about why we carry out risk analyses and our international obligations.
We conducted this risk analysis as a review of biosecurity import requirements. This is because we conducted an assessment of the potential quarantine pests associated with greenhouse-grown fresh oriental melon and rockmelon fruit from Korea and have found that:
- the pests of concern are the same, or of the same pest groups, as those pests that have been assessed previously for other horticultural goods
- there are appropriate risk management measures already established for these pests or pest groups.
Summary of the final report
We released the final report on 20 February 2023.
We recommend that the import of greenhouse-grown fresh oriental melon and rockmelon fruit from Korea be permitted, provided they meet the biosecurity import conditions. All imports must come from commercial production areas of Korea.
Five quarantine pests associated with greenhouse-grown fresh oriental melon and rockmelon fruit are present in Korea and need risk management measures to reduce the risk to an acceptable level. These pests are:
- Fruit flies: pumpkin fruit fly (Zeugodacus depressus)
- Mites: Kanzawa spider mite (Tetranychus kanzawai)
- Thrips: Eurasian flower thrips (Frankliniella intonsa), western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) and melon thrips (Thrips palmi).
All 3 thrips species were also assessed as regulated articles for all of Australia, as they are capable of harbouring and spreading emerging orthotospoviruses that are quarantine pests for Australia.
The recommended risk management measures take account of regional differences in pest distribution within Australia. Western flower thrips has been identified as a regional quarantine pest for the Northern Territory, melon thrips has been identified as a regional quarantine pest for South Australia and Western Australia, and Kanzawa spider mite has been identified as a regional quarantine pest for Western Australia.
Risk management measures
We recommend a range of measures to reduce the risk of these pests arriving in Australia via the oriental melon and rockmelon fruit pathway:
- For pumpkin fruit fly (Z. depressus)
- pest free areas, pest free places of production or pest free production sites, or
- fruit treatment considered to be effective against pumpkin fruit fly.
- For thrips species and Kanzawa spider mite (T. kanzawai)
- Pre-export visual inspection and, if found, remedial action.
Your feedback on the draft report
We received submissions on the draft report from 4 stakeholders. We have made changes to the risk analysis following consideration of stakeholder comments and a subsequent review of literature. These changes include:
- minor amendments to Chapter 2 ‘Commercial production practices for oriental melon and rockmelon fruit in Korea’ to clarify commercial production practices and include additional information obtained during a visit to Korea in June 2022
- amendments to Chapter 3 ‘Pest risk assessments for quarantine pests’ to:
- clarify technical arguments around the effectiveness of traps to detect pumpkin fruit fly
- include additional information to clarify and support the rationale for the consequence risk estimate impact score for pumpkin fruit fly
- amendments to clarify the trapping requirements recommended to demonstrate pest free places of production or pest free production sites (during a limited seasonal period) for pumpkin fruit fly (section 4.1.2 and elsewhere as appropriate)
- minor amendments to include consideration of all potential treatment options for pumpkin fruit fly
- addition of Appendix C ‘Stakeholder comments’, which summarises key stakeholder comments, and how they have been considered in this final report
- minor corrections, rewording and editorial changes for consistency, accuracy, clarity and web-accessibility.
Download submissions on the draft report
Available until February 2024.
Published submissions may not meet Australian Government accessibility requirements as they have not been prepared by us. If you have difficulty accessing these files, contact us for help.
Download final report
Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, February 2023.
Oriental melon and rockmelon fruit from Korea: biosecurity import requirements final report (PDF 4.4 MB)
Oriental melon and rockmelon fruit from Korea: biosecurity import requirements final report (DOCX 11.9 MB)
If you have difficulty accessing these files, visit web accessibility for help.
We released the draft report on 6 June 2022 for a 60 calendar day public consultation period, closing on 5 August 2022.
We announced the commencement of this risk analysis in May 2019.
Australia and Korea have a strong two-way trading relationship. In 2021, Korea was ranked as Australia’s third largest export market for goods and services. Australia exported $37.9 billion of goods and services to Korea in 2021, including $1.7 billion in beef. Australia imported $13.2 billion of goods and services from Korea in 2021.
Melon industry in Korea
Melons are grown throughout Korea. Greenhouse-grown melons can be produced and exported year-round. Peak production for oriental melon fruit occurs from March to June, with the potential to be extended into August. Rockmelon fruit is produced all year round, with variation in planting date.
In 2019, Korea exported around 1,113 tonnes of melons to overseas markets, including Taiwan, Hong Kong, Japan and Singapore. This accounted for just 3.7% of Korea’s total greenhouse-grown melon production.
Melon industry in Australia
The Australian melon industry consists of approximately 250 growers producing melons across an area of around 8,500 hectares. The major melon types produced in Australia are rockmelons, honeydew melons and watermelons. We are not aware of any oriental melons being commercially produced in Australia.
Melons are grown across most states and territories within Australia. Queensland, Northern Territory, Western Australia and New South Wales are major producers, with Victoria and South Australia producing lower, but still significant volumes.
Melons are available year-round in Australia, with August to April being the main production period for rockmelons.
Export markets for Australian rockmelons include the United Arab Emirates, Bangladesh, Fiji, Hong Kong, Japan, Kiribati, Kuwait, Lebanon, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Malaysia, New Caledonia, Nauru, New Zealand, Oman, French Polynesia, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, South Africa, Solomon Islands, Singapore and Samoa.
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