Apples from Pacific Northwest states of the USA (2018)

We have released a draft report for the risk analysis for fresh apples (Malus domestica) from the Pacific Northwest states of the USA (PNW-USA).

When we do a risk analysis, we:​​

  • review the science on pests and diseases of concern
  • assess and analyse biosecurity risks
  • develop proposed risk management measures, if required
  • consult the public on the draft report and then review comments
  • publish the final report
  • verify that the country can meet the import conditions
  • develop import conditions
  • publish import conditions in our Biosecurity Import Conditions system (BICON).

About the risk analysis

We initiated this risk analysis because the USA requested market access for fresh apples from the Pacific Northwest states of Washington, Oregon and Idaho. Learn more about why we carry out risk analyses and our international obligations.
This risk analysis is being conducted in accordance with Section 174 of the Biosecurity Act 2015. This is because we conducted an assessment of the potential quarantine pests associated with apples from PNW-USA and have found that:

  • the pests of concern are the same, or of the same pest groups, as those pests that have been assessed previously for other horticultural goods
  • there are appropriate risk management measures already established for these pests or pest groups.

Draft report

We propose that the importation of commercially produced apples from PNW-USA be permitted provided they meet the biosecurity import conditions.

Pests

Twenty-four pests associated with apples from PNW-USA need risk management measures to reduce the risk to an acceptable level. These pests are:

  • fruit fly: apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella)
  • gall midge: apple leafcurling midge (Dasineura mali)
  • mite: flat scarlet mite (Cenopalpus pulcher)
  • thrips: eastern flower thrips (Frankliniella tritici) and western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis)
  • mealybugs: apple mealybug (Phenacoccus aceris) and grape mealybug (Pseudococcus maritimus)
  • leafroller moths: European leafroller (Archips rosana), fruit tree leafroller (Archips argyrospila), large fruit tree tortrix (Archips podana), oblique-banded leafroller (Choristoneura rosaceana), orange tortrix (Argyrotaenia franciscana) and Pandemis leafroller (Pandemis pyrusana)
  • fruit moths: cherry fruitworm (Grapholita packardi), lesser appleworm (Grapholita prunivora) and codling moth (Cydia pomonella)
  • bacterium: fire blight (Erwinia amylovora)
  • fungi: apple blotch (Phyllosticta arbutifolia), European canker (Neonectria ditissima), Gymnosporangium rusts (Gymnosporangium clavipes, G. juniperi-virginianae and G. libocedri), speck rot (Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis) and Sphaeropsis rot (Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens).

Western flower thrips is identified as a regulated article because it is capable of harbouring and spreading emerging orthotospoviruses that are quarantine pests for Australia. Western flower thrips and codling moth have been identified as pests of regional biosecurity concern for the Northern Territory and Western Australia, respectively.

Risk management measures

We propose a range of measures to reduce the risk of these pests arriving in Australia via the apples pathway. These measures are:

  • Pre-export visual inspection and, if found, remedial action for mites, mealybugs and thrips.
  • In-field controls, pre-export inspection with examination of cut fruit samples suspected to be infested and, if found, remedial action or an appropriate pre-export phytosanitary treatment (such as methyl bromide fumigation) approved by the department for leafroller moths.
  • Area freedom (including pest free areas, pest free places of production or production sites) or an appropriate pre-export phytosanitary treatment approved by the department for apple maggot.
  • Area freedom (including pest free areas, pest free places of production or production sites) or in-field controls, pre-export inspection, examination of cut fruit samples suspected to be infested and, if found, remedial action or an appropriate pre-export methyl bromide fumigation treatment for fruit moths.
  • In-field controls and pre-export visual inspection and, if found, remedial action for apple leafcurling midge.
  • In-field controls, fruit maturity testing, packing house sanitation and inspection for fire blight.
  • In-field controls, packing house sanitation and inspection for European canker.
  • Orchard control, surveillance and pre-export visual inspection for Gymnosporangium rusts.
  • Systems approach and visual inspection (post-cold storage) for fungal pathogens such as Sphaeropsis rot, speck rot and apple blotch.

Make a submission

You are invited to:

  • read the draft report
  • submit your feedback through Have Your Say.

This consultation closes on 21 January 2021.

Download draft report

Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, October 2020.

Document Pages File size
Draft report of the review of biosecurity import requirements for fresh apple fruit from the Pacific Northwest states of the United States of America PDF  365 5.9 MB
Draft report of the review of biosecurity import requirements for fresh apple fruit from the Pacific Northwest states of the United States of America DOCX  365 4.6 MB

If you have difficulty accessing these files, visit web accessibility for assistance.

Announcement

More information about this risk analysis is available in the announcement information paper.

Download announcement information paper

Department of Agriculture and Water Resources, November 2018.

Document Pages File size
Announcement information paper – commencement of a review of biosecurity import requirements for fresh apple fruit from the Pacific Northwest States of the United States of America PDF  4 581 KB

If you have difficulty accessing these files, visit web accessibility for assistance.

Trade

Australia-USA trade

The USA is Australia’s third largest trading partner with two-way trade in goods and services totalling $48.7 billion in 2018–19.

In 2018–19, Australia imported approximately $2.6 billion in agricultural products from the USA and exported approximately $4.7 billion in agricultural products to the USA. The primary agricultural imports were pig meat, fruit, tree nuts and cheese. The primary agricultural exports were beef, veal, lamb and wine.

Apple industry in the USA

The USA is the third-largest producer of apples, after China and the European Union. The USA has over 5000 apple growers who collectively produce about 5 million tonnes of apples a year. In 2019­–20, the USA exported 860,000 tonnes of apples. The PNW states account for approximately 65% of total USA apple production and exports.

Apples are harvested between September and November.

The main varieties grown are Red Delicious, Gala, Granny Smith, Fuji, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, McIntosh, Rome, Cripps Pink/Pink Lady® and Empire.

Apple industry in Australia

  • Apples are grown in all states of Australia. Victoria is the main producer, accounting for 46 per cent of national production, followed by New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia and Tasmania.
  • Peak harvesting occurs between March and May.
  • Commercial varieties grown in Australia include Pink Lady, Gala, Granny Smith and Sundowner.
  • In 2018-19, Australia produced close to 311,000 tonnes of apples, worth almost $513 million.

Next steps

Our public consultation will close on 21 January 2021.
After this we will:

  • consider all feedback
  • develop and publish a final report.

We will then develop import conditions, which will be published on our Biosecurity Import Conditions system (BICON).

Your feedback during the consultation period will help inform our final report for apples from PNW-USA. We expect to release the final report in 2021. Please note that this is an indicative timeline and may be subject to change.

Keep informed

Register as a stakeholder

Subscribe to the plant stakeholder register to receive notices about plant biosecurity policies.

Contact us

For more information, email imports or phone 1800 900 090 (option 1, option 1).

Last reviewed: 23 October 2020
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