Breadfruit from Fiji, Samoa and Tonga

We have completed a final report for fresh breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) from Fiji, Samoa and Tonga risk analysis. We will now verify that these countries can meet the import conditions.

When we do a risk analysis, we:​​

  • review the science on pests and diseases of concern
  • assess and analyse biosecurity risks
  • develop proposed risk management measures, if required
  • consult the public on the draft report and then review comments
  • publish the final report
  • verify that the country can meet the import conditions
  • develop import conditions
  • publish import conditions in our Biosecurity Import Conditions system (BICON).

About the risk analysis

We initiated this risk analysis because Fiji and Samoa requested market access for fresh breadfruit to Australia. The risk analysis was expanded to cover Tonga, who is also interested in exporting fresh breadfruit to Australia. Learn more about why we carry out risk analyses and our international obligations.

This risk analysis was conducted in accordance with Section 174 of the Biosecurity Act 2015. This is because we conducted an assessment of the potential quarantine pests associated with fresh breadfruit from Fiji, Samoa and Tonga, and found that:

  • the pests of concern were the same, or of the same pest groups, as those pests that had been assessed previously for other horticultural goods
  • there are risk management measures already established for these pests or pest groups.

Final report

Summary of the final report

We recommend that the importation of fresh breadfruit from Fiji, Samoa and Tonga be permitted provided they meet the biosecurity import conditions. All imports must come from commercial production areas of Fiji, Samoa and Tonga.


Seven quarantine pests associated with breadfruit are present in Fiji, Samoa and Tonga. Risk management measures are required to reduce the risk of these pests to an acceptable level. These pests are:

  • Fruit flies: fruit fly (Bactrocera facialis), Fijian fruit fly (Bactrocera passiflorae) and Pacific fruit fly (Bactrocera xanthodes)
  • Mealybugs: grey pineapple mealybug (Dysmicoccus neobrevipes), mealybug (Dysmicoccus nesophilus), Pacific mealybug (Planococcus minor) and cryptic mealybug (Pseudococcus cryptus).

Risk management measures

We recommend risk management measures to reduce the risk of these pests arriving in Australia via breadfruit imported from Fiji, Samoa and Tonga. These measures are:

  • for fruit flies: high temperature forced air treatment or gamma irradiation treatment
  • for mealybugs: pre-export visual inspection and, if found, remedial action.

Your feedback on the draft report

Based on stakeholder comments, and a review of scientific literature, we have made a number of changes to the risk analysis. These changes include:

  • amendments to the text of Chapter 3: ‘Commercial production practices for breadfruit’, to provide further clarity that it is a requirement of the National Plant Protection Organisation (NPPO) of Fiji, Samoa and Tonga that all orchards intending to export breadfruit are to be registered
  • amendments to the text of Chapter 3: ‘Commercial production practices for breadfruit’, to clarify that there are high temperature forced air treatment facilities located in Fiji, Samoa and Tonga
  • amendments to the text of Chapter 5: ‘Pest risk management’, to clarify that breadfruit are sourced only from orchards located in Fiji, Samoa and Tonga
  • addition of Appendix B: ‘Issues raised in stakeholder comments’ which summarises key issues, and how these were considered by the department in this final report
  • minor corrections, rewording and editorial changes for consistency, clarity and web-accessibility.

Download final report

Department of Agriculture, September 2019.

Document Pages File size
Final report of the review of biosecurity import requirements for fresh breadfruit from Fiji, Samoa and Tonga PDF 90 6.1 MB
Final report of the review of biosecurity import requirements for fresh breadfruit from Fiji, Samoa and Tonga DOCX 90 2.7 MB

If you have difficulty accessing these files, visit web accessibility for help.

Draft report

We released the draft report on 4 October 2018 for a 60 calendar day public consultation period, closing on 3 December 2018.


More information is available in the Announcement Information Paper.


Australia-Pacific Island trade

Australia is a net exporter of agricultural products to Pacific Island countries. In 2017/18, Australia’s exports to Fiji, Samoa and Tonga were valued at approximately $161 million. Australia’s agricultural exports to these countries included grains, coffee and spices. In 2017/18, imports from Fiji, Samoa and Tonga to Australia were valued at approximately $25 million. Agricultural imports from these countries to Australia included tree nuts and vegetables (fresh and frozen).

We participate in the Pacific Horticultural and Agricultural Market Access (PHAMA) program. PHAMA is a trade facilitation program funded by the Australian and New Zealand governments to assist Pacific Island countries achieve increased market access for agricultural and horticultural products. We receive funding from the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (under the PHAMA program) to assess market access requests from Pacific Island countries (including for this risk analysis) and provide assistance with biosecurity issues. Increasing trade opportunities for horticultural produce assists in boosting economic development in the region.

Breadfruit industry in Fiji, Samoa and Tonga

Breadfruit production in Fiji, Samoa and Tonga is small-scale. There is considerable variability in the availability of breadfruit.

In Fiji, the breadfruit season runs from October to May, which is when most exports occur. Different varieties are being trialled in Fiji to expand the season. In Samoa, supply is typically lowest in April and May however, this is not always the case. In Tonga, peak production is from December to April.

Fiji, Samoa and Tonga have access to export fresh breadfruit to New Zealand, under protocols that require a high temperature forced air (HTFA) treatment to mitigate fruit fly pests.

Breadfruit industry in Australia

The Australian breadfruit industry is very small, with small-scale production occurring in the Northern Territory (around Darwin) and Queensland (north of Cairns). Breadfruit production in Australia is seasonal, with peak production in Queensland occurring in February and March.

Australia does not currently export breadfruit.

Next steps

Before imports can commence we will:

  • Verify that the exporting countries (Fiji, Samoa and Tonga) can meet the import conditions.
  • Publish import conditions on the Biosecurity Import Conditions system (BICON).
  • Issue import permits to importers who meet the import conditions.

The decision to commence imports will be a commercial decision between an exporter in the exporting country and an importer in Australia. The importer must meet the import conditions as set out in BICON.

Keep informed

Register as a stakeholder

Subscribe to the plant stakeholder register to receive notices about plant biosecurity policies.

Contact us

For more information, email imports or phone 1800 900 090 (option 1, option 1).

Last reviewed: 4 January 2021
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