Chinese jujubes from China

A review of biosecurity import requirements for the importation of fresh Chinese jujube fruit from China

We are conducting a risk analysis for fresh Chinese jujube fruit (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) from China.

We will conduct the risk analysis in three key steps:

  1. Announce the commencement of the risk analysis, on 10 August 2018, via Biosecurity Advice 2018-20.
  2. Release the draft risk analysis report, for a 60 day consultation period, on 18 March 2019, via Plant Biosecurity Advice 2019-P04.
  3. Release the final report in the second half of 2019, following consideration of stakeholder comments.

Further detail regarding the risk analysis is available in the Announcement Information Paper, fact sheet and draft report.

Purpose of the risk analysis

The risk analysis was initiated in response to a market access request for fresh Chinese jujube fruit from China to Australia. Chinese jujube fruit is China’s highest horticultural priority for new market access.

Australia (as a World Trade Organization (WTO) member) must meet its international obligations by assessing market access requests (import proposals) and developing the least trade restrictive and scientifically justified import conditions where required. Our trading partners use the same principles when assessing Australian market access requests.


The draft report proposes that the importation of fresh Chinese jujube fruit to Australia from all commercial production areas of China be permitted, subject to a range of biosecurity import requirements.

The draft report identifies eight pests associated with fresh Chinese jujube fruit from China that require risk management measures, in combination with an operational system, to achieve the appropriate level of protection for Australia. These pests are:

  • Fruit flies: Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), guava fruit fly (Bactrocera correcta), melon fly (Zeugodacus cucurbitae) and jujube fruit fly (Carpomyia vesuviana)
  • Fruit borers: peach fruit borer (Carposina sasakii)
  • Mites: hawthorn spider mite (Amphitetranychus viennensis)
  • Mealybugs: heliococcus mealybug (Heliococcus destructor)
  • Thrips: chilli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis).

The proposed risk management measures include:

  • For fruit flies: area freedom or fruit treatment (such as cold treatment; methyl bromide fumigation followed by cold treatment; or irradiation)
  • For peach fruit borer: area freedom or fruit treatment (such as methyl bromide fumigation or irradiation) or a systems approach approved by the Department of Agriculture and Water Resources
  • For spider mites, mealybugs and thrips: pre-export visual inspection and, if detected, remedial action.

Download the draft report

DocumentPagesFile size
Draft report for the review of biosecurity import requirements for fresh Chinese jujube fruit from China PDF 1848.2 MB
Draft report for the review of biosecurity import requirements for fresh Chinese jujube fruit from China DOCX 1848.4 MB

If you have difficulty accessing these files, visit web accessibility for assistance.

Next steps

Following the consideration of stakeholder comments, a final report is released. The final report reflects the completion of the risk analysis. Before imports can commence, we will:

  • verify that China can meet the recommended biosecurity requirements
  • publish import conditions on the Biosecurity Import Conditions system (BICON)
  • issue import permits for trade to commence.

The decision to import jujubes into Australia will then be a commercial decision between an exporter in China and an importer in Australia who can meet the import conditions.

General Information

New scientific information

New scientific information can be provided to us at any time, including after a risk analysis has been completed. We will consider the information provided and review the analysis.

Register as a stakeholder

We use a stakeholder register to distribute biosecurity risk analysis policy information. Stakeholders interested in receiving information and updates on biosecurity risk analyses are invited to subscribe via the department’s online subscription service By subscribing to Biosecurity Risk Analysis Plant, you will receive Biosecurity Advices and other notifications relating to plant biosecurity policy.

Protecting Australia from exotic pests

Australia is free from many of the world’s most damaging plant pests. Exotic plant pests are capable of damaging our natural environment, destroying our food production and agriculture industries, and some could change our way of life. Australia’s biosecurity system, which includes the risk assessment process, helps protect us from exotic plant pests.

We undertake risk assessments of pests and identify risk management options to address any risks posed by these exotic pests. These measures reflect Australia’s overall approach to the management of biosecurity risk.

Zero risk is impossible. Aiming for zero risk would mean no tourists, no international travel and no imports of any commodities. Australia invests heavily in biosecurity to ensure risks are managed.

Australia exports almost two-thirds of its agricultural produce. The future of our agricultural and food industries, including their capacity to contribute to growth and jobs, depends on Australia’s capacity to maintain its animal and plant health status.

Australia accepts imports only when we are confident the risks of pests and diseases can be managed to achieve an appropriate level of protection for Australia.

International obligations

All World Trade Organization (WTO) members are signatories to the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement), under which they have both rights and obligations.

The basic obligations of the SPS Agreement are that SPS measures must:

  • be based on a risk assessment appropriate to the circumstances or drawn from standards developed by the World Organization for Animal Health and the International Plant Protection Convention
  • only be applied to the extent necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health
  • be based on science
  • not arbitrarily or unjustifiably discriminate between WTO members, or be a disguised restriction on trade.

Under the SPS Agreement, each WTO Member is entitled to maintain a level of protection it considers appropriate to protect human, animal or plant life or health within its territory – in other words, its appropriate level of protection.

Appropriate level of protection

The appropriate level of protection (ALOP) for Australia is defined in the Biosecurity Act 2015 as ‘a high level of sanitary and phytosanitary protection aimed at reducing biosecurity risks to very low, but not to zero’. This definition was agreed with all our state and territory governments and recognises that a zero-risk stance is impractical.

The ALOP is a broad objective, and risk management measures are established to achieve that objective.

Read more about Australia’s ALOP

Biosecurity risk

The term ‘biosecurity risk’ is used to describe the combination of the likelihood and the consequences of a pest or disease of biosecurity concern entering, establishing and spreading in Australia.

Australia's biosecurity system protects our unique environment and agricultural sector and supports our reputation as a safe and reliable trading nation. This has significant economic, environmental and community benefits for all Australians.

Meeting Australia’s food standards

Imported food for human consumption must satisfy Australia’s food standards. Australian law requires that all food, including imported fresh fruit, meets the standards set out in the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code and the requirements of the Imported Food Control Act 1992. Each state and territory also has its own food laws that must be met.

Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ) is responsible for developing and maintaining the Food Standards Code. The standards apply to all food in Australia, irrespective of whether it is grown domestically or imported.

Contact information

For more information, stakeholders can email imports or phone 1800 900 090 (option 1, option 1).

Last reviewed: 4 November 2019
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