Fresh Chinese jujube fruit from China

We have completed a final report for fresh Chinese jujube fruit (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) from China risk analysis. We will now verify that China can meet the import conditions.

When we do a risk analysis, we:

  • review the science on pests and diseases of concern
  • assess and analyse biosecurity risks
  • develop proposed risk management measures, if required
  • consult the public on the draft report and then review comments
  • publish the final report
  • verify that the country can meet the import conditions
  • develop import conditions
  • publish import conditions in our Biosecurity Import Conditions system (BICON).

About the risk analysis

We initiated this risk analysis because China requested market access for fresh Chinese jujube fruit to Australia.

This risk analysis was conducted in accordance with Section 174 of the Biosecurity Act 2015. This is because we conducted an assessment of the potential quarantine pests associated with fresh Chinese jujube fruit from China, and found that:

  • the pests of concern were the same, or of the same pest groups, as those pests that had been assessed previously for other horticultural goods
  • there are risk management measures already established for these pests or pest groups.

Final report

Summary of the final report

We recommend that the importation of fresh Chinese jujube fruit from China be permitted provided they meet the biosecurity import conditions. All imports must come from commercial production areas of China.


Eight pests, including seven quarantine pests and one regulated article, associated with fresh Chinese jujube fruit are present in China. Risk management measures are required to reduce the risk of these pests to an acceptable level. These pests are:

  • Fruit flies: Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis), guava fruit fly (Bactrocera correcta), melon fly (Zeugodacus cucurbitae), jujube fruit fly (Carpomyia vesuviana)
  • Fruit borer: peach fruit borer (Carposina sasakii)
  • Mite: hawthorn spider mite (Amphitetranychus viennensis)
  • Mealybug: Heliococcus mealybug (Heliococcus destructor)
  • Thrips: chilli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis).

Chilli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis) has been assessed as a regulated article as it is capable of harbouring and spreading emerging orthotospoviruses that are quarantine pests for Australia, and therefore requires risk management measures.

Risk management measures

We recommend risk management measures to reduce the risk of these pests arriving in Australia via fresh Chinese jujube fruit imported from China. These measures are:

  • for Oriental fruit fly, guava fruit fly and melon fly: area freedom or fruit treatment considered to be effective against all life stages of these pest species (such as cold treatment, methyl bromide fumigation followed by cold treatment, or irradiation)
  • for jujube fruit fly: area freedom or fruit treatment considered to be effective against all life stages of this pest (such as irradiation)
  • for peach fruit borer: area freedom, fruit treatment considered to be effective against all life stages of this pest (such as methyl bromide fumigation or irradiation), or a systems approach approved by the department
  • for mites, mealybugs and thrips: pre-export visual inspection and, if found, remedial action.

Your feedback on the draft report

Based on stakeholder comments, and a review of scientific literature, we have made a number of changes to the risk analysis. These changes include:

  • Amendments to 'Appendix A: Initiation and categorisation for pests of fresh Chinese jujube fruit from China' and elsewhere as appropriate, following consultation with plant pathologists and review of further scientific literature on the taxonomic status and assessment of three pathogens, Neofusicoccum ribis, Dothiorella gregaria and Macrophoma kuwatsukai. Neofusicoccum ribis has been removed from the pest categorisation as it is not present in China. Additionally, N. ribis only infects Ribis species and is not associated with Chinese jujube. Dothiorella gregaria and Macrophoma kuwatsukai have been added to the pest categorisation and assessed as not on the pathway of fresh Chinese jujube fruit.
  • Amendments to 'Appendix A: Initiation and categorisation for pests of fresh Chinese jujube fruit from China' and elsewhere as appropriate, following a review of the regional pest status of Hop stunt viroid, Phytophthora palmivora and Armillaria tabescens. Consistent with the department's plant quarantine pest and official control policy, and in accordance with the IPPC International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures, these pests are not considered to be under official control, and are therefore not recognised as a pest of quarantine concern. The assessment for these pests have been amended to terminate at 'Present in Australia' step of the pest categorisation.
  • Addition of 'Appendix B1: Issues raised in stakeholder comments', which summarises the key technical issues raised by stakeholders, and how they were considered by the department.
  • Addition of 'Appendix B2: An overview of jujube witches' broom phytoplasma (JWB)', which provides further supporting evidence that JWB is not associated with the pathway of commercially grown and packed fresh Chinese jujube fruit, and that JWB is not seed transmissible.
  • Addition of 'Appendix C: Risk management measures recommended for quarantine pests and regulated thrips for fresh Chinese jujubes from China', which clarifies details of the phytosanitary risk management options currently recognised by the department as effective for management of the biosecurity risk of each of the identified quarantine pests.
  • Minor corrections, rewording and editorial changes for consistency, clarity and web-accessibility.

Download final report

Department of Agriculture, January 2020.

Document Pages File size
Final report of the review of biosecurity import requirements for fresh Chinese jujube fruit from China PDF 200 5.8 MB
Final report of the review of biosecurity import requirements for fresh Chinese jujube fruit from China DOCX 200 7.8 MB

If you have difficulty accessing these files, visit web accessibility for assistance.

Draft report

We released the draft report on 18 March 2019 for a 60 calendar day public consultation period, which ended on 17 May 2019.


Australia-China trade

China is Australia’s largest two-way trade goods and services trading partner and Australia’s largest export market and source of imports. In 2017/18, total trade was valued at $194.6 billion, comprising $123.3 billion in exports and $71.3 billion in imports.

In the same financial year, Australia’s agricultural exports to China was valued at over $11.5 billion.

Jujube industry in China

Chinese jujube is one of the most important fruit crops in China and has been grown in China for more than 4,000 years. Chinese jujube, also called Chinese date, red date, ber or tsao, is native to China and one of the oldest cultivated fruit trees in China. Over 400 cultivars of Chinese jujube are grown across China.

Currently, “Dongzao” is the most popular fresh Chinese jujube cultivar with a total of 107,000 hectares under cultivation that produces more than 410,000 tonnes of fresh fruit annually.

Jujube industry in Australia

Chinese jujube fruit is considered an emerging horticultural crop in Australia and plantings of Chinese jujube trees have increased since 2010. Western Australia and South Australia are Australia’s leading jujube producing states. Each state has approximately 20 hectares of jujube trees planted, with further expansion planned in the coming years. Chinese jujube is also grown in the eastern states of Australia in Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland.

Australia does not currently export fresh jujube fruit.

Next steps

Before imports can commence we will:

  1. Verify that China can meet the import conditions.
  2. Publish import conditions on the Biosecurity Import Conditions system (BICON).
  3. Issue import permits to importers who meet the import conditions.

The decision to commence imports will be a commercial decision between an exporter in the exporting country and an importer in Australia. The importer must meet the import conditions as set out in BICON.

Keep informed

Register as a stakeholder

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Contact us

For more information, email imports or phone 1800 900 090 (option 1, option 1).

Last reviewed: 3 February 2021
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